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36 Cards in this Set

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Critical Periods
-specific periods of time in which development is particularly responsive to certain influences
Sensitive Periods
-more flexible and not as closely tied to chronological age or maturational stage
-low birth weight
-physical defects
-poor impulse control
Cocaine exposure during prenatal development
-premature birth
-low birth weight
-physical defects
-brain seizures
-irritability in infants
-later learning disabilities and peer problems
Six high-risk factors identified by Rutter for psychopathology
1. low SES
2. marital discord
3. large family size and crowding
4. maternal psychiatric disorder
5. paternal criminality
6. placement in foster care
Brofenbrenner's Ecological Model
1. Microsystem
2. Mesosystem (school, neighborhood, peer groups)
3. Exosystem (parent's workplace, local government, etc)
4. Macrosystem (dominant beliefs)
This part of the brain is least developed at birth
cerebral cortex
What are increases in brain size following birth due to?
neuron size, dendritic branching and myelinization
Reflexes in Newborns
-rooting (head turns in response to stroking of the cheek)
-Babinski (toes fan out and curl in response to foot stroking)
-Moro ("embracing" motion in response to loud noise or sense of being dropped)
Early physical maturation has more positive consequences for _____ than for _____.
1. Sensorimotor(birth to 2) - object perm. and symbolic thought
2. Preoperational(2 to 7) - ego centrism, centration
3. Concrete Operational(7 to 12) - conservation, reversibility
4. Formal Operations(12 to adult) - abstract thought, deductive thinking
"Open sesamie" Erik cried, crawling rapidly at David.
As adults age, _______ memory is affected but there is little or no age related change in ________ memory (memory span).
______ long-term memory shows substantial declines in aging adults, but _______ long-term memory is less affected.
LAD (Language Acquistion Development) proposed by Chomsky suggests:
an innate LAD enables children to understand and speak in rule-governed ways once they have acquired sufficient vocabulary
smallest unit of sound understood as part of language
smallest unit of sound that conveys meaning
-initially includes sounds from all languages but narrows to child's native language at 9-14 months
apply a word to a wider collection of objects than is appropriate
(ex: calling all four legged animals: dogs)
Minority language children in good-quality bilingual programs have _______ outcomes than peers in immersion programs.
Thomas and Chess' goodness-of-fit model
maladjustment in children is due to the lack of "fit" between the child's basic temperment and his or her parent's behavior
_______ ________ in infancy seems to be the most predictive of characteristics in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood.
Behavioral inhibition (or approach/withdrawal)
Freud's Stages of Development
Oral (0-1)
Anal (1-3)
Phallic (3-6)
Latency (7-11)
Genital (12-18)
Erikson's Stages of Development
Trust vs Mistrust (0-1)
Autonomny vs Shame/Doubt (1-3)
Initiative vs Guilt (3-6)
Industry vs Inferiority (7-11)
Identity vs Identity Confusion (12-18)
Intimacy vs Isolation (Yng. Adult)
Gererativity vs Stagnation (Adult)
Ego Integrity vs Despair (Eld. Adult)
Baumrind's Parenting Styles
Authoritative - high in warmth and demandingness, children are assertive, self-confident, socially resp...

Authoritarian - low in warmth, high in demandingness, children are irritable, aggressive, dependent, have low levels of self-esteem...

Permissive - high in warmth, low in demandingness, children are impulsive, self-centered, easily frustrated...

Rejecting - low in warmth and demandingness, children have low self-esteem, tend to be moody, impulsive and aggressive
According to Kohlberg, gender identity development involves three stages:
identity, stability and constancy
Adolescent Identity Developemtn (Marcia)
Identity Diffusion - no crisis, no committment

Identity Foreclosure - commitument with no crisis

Identity Moratorium - crisis and no commitment

Identity Achievement - crisis leads to achievement
Strange Situation (Ainsworth) - Evaluating Attachment Patterns in Infants
Secure - infants cry when mom leaves, greet her happily when she comes back, moms are emotionally sensitive and responsive

Anxious/Avoident - infants rarely cry when mom leaves, avoid her when she returns, moms impatient and unresponsive

Anxious/Ambivalent (Resistant) - infants upset when mom leaves but when she returns may hit or push her away, moms are moody and inconsistent in caregiving

Disorganized/Disoriented - infants display inconsistent behavior when mom leaves and are confused or afraid when she returns, children usually negected or abused by caregivers
Social Referencing
6 mo. of age, infants looks to caregiver for cues in ambiguous situations
Separation Anxiety
6 mo. of age, infants become distressed when separated from caregiver (peaks at around 14 to 18 mo.)
Stranger Anxiety
8 - 10 mo. infants have a strong negative reaction to strangers (peaks at about 18 mo.)
Piaget's Stages of Moral Development
Heteronomous Morality (7-10) - children exhibit unquestioning obedience to authority and laws

Autonomous Morality (11+) - individuals recognize that rules and laws can be changed by consensus, intentions are more important than consequences
According to Piaget, children do not deliberately lie until age ___ but recent research suggests children as young as ___ may lie to avoid punishment or gain reward.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 1: Preconventional (Birth to 9)
Stage 1 - Obeys rules to avoid punishment.
Stage 2 - Conforms to rules to obtain rewards.

Level II: Conventional (9 to 20)
Stage 3 - Conforms to rules to avoid social disapproval.
Stage 4 - Obeys laws to maintain social order.

Level III: Postconventional (20+, maybe never)
Stage 5 - Acts in accord with democratically-chosen laws.
Stage 6 - Acts in accord with universal ethical principles.
Immediate effects of divorce may be worse for ____ while ____ show a "sleeper effect".
Teachers respond differently by gender. Typically, boys receive more _____ and _____ than girls by both male and female teachers.
criticism and praise
Early compensatory education programs only have a short-term effect on IQ and achievement but are associated with:
better attitude about school, higher self-esteem and increased liklihood of graduating high school.