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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
stimulus generalization

re: classical conditioning
responding with a CR not only to the CS, but to a stimuli similar to it
stimulus discrimination

re: classical conditioning
learning to respond only in the presence of the original CS
experimental neurosis

re: classical conditioning
results from making an organsim make difficult discriminations between similar stimuli

characterized by restlesness, agressiveness & fear
higher-order/second-order conditioning

re: classical conditioning
new CR produced by using previous CS as an US

e.g. light paried with bell to produce salivation

re: classical conditioning
when a neutral stimulus that hasn't been deliberately paired with US, elicits a response similar to the UR
study: Little Albert

developed a phobic response to white rat (CS) when paired with noise (US)

experienced stimulus generalization
spontaneous recovery

re: classical conditioning
once something is learned, ibt is never forgotten (only inhibited)
sensate focus
Masters & Johnson

pairing anxiety provoking situations with plesaurable physical sensations and relaxation
Schedules of reinforcement (4 - least effective to most effective)
fixed interval
e.g hourly wage

variable interval
e.g. pop quizzes

fixed ratio
e.g piecework

variable ratio
e.g. gambling
stimulus control
whether or not a response will be reinforced is signaled by cues in the environment

e.g. pigeon reinforced for pecking keep when green light on (+ve discrim. stimulus) and red light off (-ve discrim. stimulus)
positive discriminative stimuli
signals a behaviour will be reinforced
negative discriminative stimuli
signlas a behaviour will not be reinforced

re: operant conditioning
reducing proportion of reinforcements

re: operant conditioning
gradual removal of prompt

e.g. reminder to clean room
differential reinforcement
positive reinforcment of all behaviours EXCEPT target behaviour (e.g. tic)
Accoring to Rehm, 3 aspects of self-control increase a person's vulnerability to depression...
self-monitoring - selective inattention

self-evalutation - inaccurate internal attributions

self-reinforcement - low self-reward; high self-punishment
3 processes of menory acquisition and recall
Information processing approach (3 stages)
1. Sensory memory

2. STM - primary memory (5-9 units); working memory (chunking)

3. LTM
STM memory begins to fade after _____ (time)
30 seconds
Average capacity of STM is _____ (items)
anterograde amnesisa
cannot retain new information

i.e. info cannot be transferred from STM to LTM
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events before trauma
serial position effect

re: memory
items at beginning (LTM + rehearsal) and end (STM)of list are recalled better
types of LTM (3)
1. prodedural or implicit- how to do things

2. declarative or explicit - facts
(semantic & declarative)

3. Prospective - remembering things in future
types of declarative LTM (2)
1. Semantic - knowlege about language; common sense knowledge, rules of logic

2. Episodic (autobiographical) - personal experiences
what type of memory is most affect by normal aging?
episodic memory

- a type of LT declarative memory (vs. semantic)
flashbulb memories
vivid, photographically-detailed memories of emotionally-charged experiences

e.g. where were you when Kennedy was shot
knowing how to know

i.e. knowledge of how to learn
knowing about knowing

e.g. knowledge and ability to manipulate own cognitions
theories about forgetting (3)
trace decay theory

interference theory

cue-dependent theory
trace decay theory

re: forgetting
learning produces physiological change which decays over time as a result of disuse

BUT memory can survive without practice
interference theory

re: forgetting
RETROACTIVE interference when newly-learned material interferes with previously-learned material

PROACTIVE interference when prior learning interfreres with recall of subsequent material
cue-dependent forgetting
when cues needed to retrieve info are insufficient or incomplete

e.g. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Yerkes-Dodson Law

re: memory
moderate levels of arousal assoc with optimal learning (inverted-U relationship)
What is biofeedback most effective for?
Raynaud's disease

re: operant technique
positive punishment to eliminate undesirable behaviour by:

1. restitution - correction of effects of behaviour

2. positive practice of desirable behaviour