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62 Cards in this Set

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Anterograde Amnesia
An inability to form any new permanent memories; i.e., inability to remember events occurring after an event such as a head trauma.
Aversive Conditioning
The pairing of an aversive stimulus (the US) with a target stimulus, such as alcohol or a fetish object (the CS), until the target stimulus also comes to elicit the response of aversion.
Avoidance Conditioning
Type of learning in which an avoidance response is established through classical conditioning and then maintained through operant conditioning (negative reinforcement); the person learns to avoid an anticipated unpleasant (aversive) stimulus by engaging i
Chaining
Process of learning a complex response through the linking together of less complex component responses. Each link in the chain serves as reinforcement for the previous response and a discriminative stimulus for the following response. Skinner's explanati
Classical Conditioning
Type of conditioning (learning) in which a neutral, or conditioned, stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) so that the CS eventually elicits a conditioned response (CR) that resembles the response naturally elicited by the US.
Conditioned Response (CR)
Respondent behavior which is learned and appears following a conditioned stimulus: i.e., the salivation of Pavlov's dog after hearing the bell.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus which, through repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, will eventually elicit the same respondent behavior (conditioned response) when applied alone.
Continuous Schedule Of Reinforcement
In operant conditioning, the provision of reinforcement following each correct response. Results in fast learning and, when reinforcement is stopped, fast extinction.
Counterconditioning
Based on classical conditioning, using relaxation to counter feared responses. Since people cannot be both fearful and relaxed at the same time, training the person in relaxation will inhibit, or counter, fear in the presence of stimuli which usually caus
Covert Sensitization
In behavioral treatments, teaching the client to imagine an unpleasant scene or consequence and pairing the images with the targeted behavior. A form of aversive conditioning.
Discriminative Stimuli
Cues that reinforcement will (or will not) occur for a particular behavior; thus, they acquire the power to "switch on" or "switch off" a particular behavior.
Elaborative Rehearsal
A memory strategy in which a person thinks about the meaning of new information and its relation to information already in memory. This results in deeper learning and is considered superior to all forms of "mindless" repetition.
Episodic memory
Memory for autobiographical "episodes"; i.e., events that have personal meaning, like your parent's anniversary.
Escape Conditioning
Continuous presentation of an aversive stimulus requiring the subject to take some action in order to escape the stimulus. For example, teaching a rat to avoid an electrically charged grid by jumping over a hurdle. A form of negative reinforcement.
Explicit (Declarative) Memory
Memory which involves a conscious awareness of remembering.
Extinction
In operant conditioning, eliminating reinforcement for a previously reinforced response, the result of which is to decrease the frequency of that response. In classical conditioning, presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) outside the presence of th
Fading
The gradual removal or changing of environmental cues or conditions under which a response occurs.
Fixed Interval Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement for a response occurs at a fixed (consistent) interval of time, regardless of the number of responses.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement for a response occurs after a fixed number of desired responses (e.g., after every 5th response).
Flooding (or Deliberate Exposure)
The technique of having the person engage in a feared behavior without escape so that the fear response is eventually extinguished.
Generalization
The spread of treatment effects across stimulus conditions outside of the treatment environment itself. Aversive treatments have often been shown to have little generalization to other settings.
Higher-Order Conditioning
Learning in which a previously established conditioned stimulus is used as an unconditioned stimulus to establish a conditioned response with a new conditioned (neutral) stimulus.
Implosive Therapy
In behavioral treatments, the technique of having the person imagine engaging in the feared stimulus in order to extinguish the fear response. In addition, implosion includes an aspect of psychoanalytic exploration.
In Vivo Exposure
The class of behavioral techniques used to treat fears and phobias which emphasizes engaging the person at some level in the reality of the presence of the feared stimuli. In vivo flooding, graded exposure, and graded participant modeling all entail in- v
Insight Learning
A theory of learning, advanced by Wolfgang Kohler and based on Gestalt theory, that suggests that learning occurs out of sudden insights, which result from internal cognitive restructurings of the perceptual field.
Intermittent Schedules Of Reinforcement
Refers to reinforcement that occurs on a regular basis, but not after each and every single response. Include fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, and variable interval schedules of reinforcement.
Inverted "U" Function (or Yerkes-Dodson Law)
The relationship between arousal and performance. Increased arousal improves performance up to a point, and if arousal continues to increase, performance will decline. Generally for simple tasks, increased arousal is facilitating to performance, but for c
Latent Learning
Tolman's learning theory which holds that reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur but is necessary for the behavioral consequences of learning to manifest themselves.
Law Of Effect
Thorndike's law of learning that states that when a response has satisfying consequences, it is likely to be repeated. A precursor to Skinner's model of operant conditioning.
Metacognition
The process of thinking about thinking, that is, a person's awareness about his or her own cognitive state and process.
Modeling
A technique in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments emphasizing the value of observing someone engaging in adaptive behaviors without consequence.
Negative Reinforcement
The removal of an undesirable stimulus after a given response. This increases the likelihood of that response recurring in the future.
Operant Conditioning
Learning of behavior which takes place as a result of the consequences of the events which follow the behavior (i.e., as a consequence of reinforcement or punishment).
Overcorrection
A behavioral technique in which the person who has engaged in maladaptive behavior must make a repeated and exaggerated corrective response.
Overlearning
Practicing or rehearsing beyond the level of mastery. It is most effective for simple tasks that must be remembered for a long period of time.
Positive Reinforcement
Applying a stimulus after a response in order to increase the likelihood of that response recurring.
Premack Principle
Use of a behavior that occurs frequently as a reinforcer for a behavior that does not. For example: "You can watch TV after you eat you peas."
Primary Reinforcers
The same as unconditioned reinforcers. These are events which are naturally reinforcing. Food and water are examples of primary reinforcers.
Proactive Inhibition
Occurs when material learned earlier interferes with recall of material learned later.
Procedural memory
Information about how to do things, such as how to drive a car. It can also be referred to as implicit memory, since accessing such memories is done unconsciously.
Punishment
The process of presenting an aversive stimulus (or removing a desirable stimulus) as a consequence of a behavior, which decreases the frequency of that response. Punishment has been shown to suppress an undesirable behavior, but not to eliminate it.
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, created by Ellis, based on the notion that maladaptive behavior and emotions are the result of irrational beliefs.
Reinforcement
Presenting or removing something after a response, the effect of which is to increase the frequency of that response.
Response Cost
Behavioral technique in which a penalty follows a target behavior with the goal of decreasing the frequency of that behavior. A form of negative punishment. Example: fines for traffic violations.
Response Prevention
In behavioral treatments, arranging the environment such that the maladaptive behavior (response) is difficult or impossible to make.
Retroactive Inhibition
Forgetting that occurs when a new experience interferes with recall of an earlier one.
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events prior to a given point in time (e.g., for events that occurred prior to head trauma).
Semantic Memory
Memory for the rules of logic and inference, as well as knowledge about language (e.g., what words mean and how they are used).
Sensate Focus
A technique used in sex therapy in which the person is encouraged to touch and stroke the partner's body in a comfortable, relaxed setting with no pressure to do anything other than this pleasuring. The aim is to have the person become desensitized to the
Sensory Memory
In the three-stage model of memory, sensory memory is the first stage. It preserves a large amount of sensory information for a very brief period of time (only a second or two).
Shaping
The process of creating more complex operant behaviors by reinforcing those which gradually approach the desired behavior. Shaping is also known as the method of successive approximations.
Social Learning Theory
Cognitive-behavioral theory that assumes that the acquisition of behavior is due to observation of others, often in the absence of reinforcement.
Spontaneous Recovery
Recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response following a period after the response has been extinguished. Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is re-introduced.
Stimulus Control
Control over behavior exerted by a discriminative stimulus (i.e., a stimulus that serves as a signal that reinforcement or punishment is about to occur).
Stimulus Discrimination
Conditioning the subject to discern the difference between different stimuli. Thus, a conditioned response would be elicited from a particular conditioned stimulus only and not from similar stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization
Learning to respond to stimuli similar, but not identical, to the original stimulus.
Thought Stopping
An aversive technique for countering intrusive or obsessive thoughts or actions. The client is encouraged to ruminate, then the therapist yells "STOP" which startles the client. Eventually, the client is helped to do this himself or herself, at first alou
Time-Out
In behavioral treatments, removing a person (usually a child), for a short period of time from situations which provide the opportunity for positive reinforcement.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
Respondent behavior which is a reflexive, regular response to certain environmental stimuli.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
A stimulus which is adequate to elicit respondent behavior (an unconditioned response) without any prior learning or conditioning. For example, a loud noise elicits a startle response. The loud noise is the unconditioned stimulus.
Variable Interval Schedule
Schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs after random or variable time intervals.
Variable Ratio Schedule
Schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs after a random or variable number of responses. For example, gambling is reinforced on this schedule. As compared to the other reinforcement schedules, produces the highest rate of responding and beh