Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/91

Click to flip

91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Consultee-Centered Case Consultation
Gerald Caplan notes that, especially when the target of the consultation is the consultee's lack of skill, this form of consultation most resembles "technical supervision." Community Psy
Lazarus theory
proposes that a thought must precede any emotion or physiological arousal. Neuro
Cannon-Bard
states physiological and emotional arousal are experienced at the same time. Neuro
James-Lange
event causes physiological arousal first, then interpretation and finally the experience of emotion. Neuro
Schachter-Singer
event causes physiological arousal first,then reasoning and finally the experience of emotion. Neuro
generalized seizures:
(a.) involve a brief loss of consciousness with few or no other symptoms
(b.) is brief jerky contractions of muscles in different parts of the body, most often in the legs and arms.
(c.) seizure involves convulsions, unconsciousness, and muscle rigidity.
(d) non-generalized: begin in the temporal lobe, involve impaired consciousness and involuntary chewing, lip smacking, fidgeting, and walking in circles.
a. Absence seizures
b. myoclonic seizure
c. grand mal
d. Complex partial seizures
Neuro
conceptualizes acculturation as many models existing on a continuum, with the minority culture and the majority or mainstream culture at opposite poles. Integration would be displayed by an individual who has high retention of the minority culture and high maintenance of the mainstream culture.
J. Barry, Clinical psy
APA's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists
"psychologists obtain informed consent unless the service is court ordered." Thus, in a court-ordered evaluation, it is not necessary to obtain informed consent. However, the subject of an evaluation should always be informed of the purpose, methods, and intended use of the evaluation. Ethics
Identical elements
a concept based on the work of learning theorists Thorndike and Woodworth in 1901. It refers to the notion that training is best transferred over to situations which are similar to, or which have "identical elements" with, the training environment. Research has confirmed that identical elements improves transfer of training for both verbal and motor tasks. Learning theory
imipramine
a tricyclic, is the drug of choice in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis and for the treatment of cataleptic episodes associated with narcolepsy, Neuro
Self-in-Relation
feminist theory, development of the self is viewed as progressing from infantile dependence towards a mature state of interdependence, clinical
heteronomous and autonomous stages in moral development
Piaget: Heteronomous morality is characteristic of preschool children who believe that rules are absolute and unchangeable. A child in the autonomous stage views rules as more arbitrary and changeable by consensus. Dev Psy
Expectancy Theory: expectancy, valence, and instrumentality
Instrumentality refers to the degree to which performance leads to certain desired outcomes. Valence refers to the importance of outcomes that follow from performance. And expectancy refers to belief that effort will pay off in performance. I/O psy
Hawthorne effect
is a similar phenomenon, but refers to the tendency of research participants to behave differently due to the mere fact they are participating in research, social psy
eigenvalue
Factor Analysis: the explained variance of one of the factors.
shrinkage
items that have collectively been shown to be a valid way to diagnose in one group of individuals prove to be less valid when used for a different sample, test constr
Nonparametric methods
were developed to be used in cases when the researcher knows nothing about the parameters of the variable of interest in the population (hence the name nonparametric). research design
Is a representation of an external stimulus after the stimulus has ended. Is thought to have an unlimited capacity but a very short duration (no more than 2 or 3 seconds).
sensory memory (also long-term memory)LT&BT
in its simplest form, is leadership by contingent reinforcement. The leaders' rewards, promises and/or threats of disciplinary actions or punishments motivate the followers.
Transactional leadership I/O psy
proposes that stimuli are processed at different levels, and the deeper the level of processing, the more likely it will be remembered. That is why techniques such as elaborative rehearsal, in which a person thinks about the meaning of new information and its relation to existing memories, is more effective than more superficial approaches such as "mindless" repetition.
levels of processing theory by Craik and Lockhart, LT & BT
Bulima Nervosa
1) binge eating (which includes a sense of a lack of control) and (2) inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to lose weight (e.g., purging, excessive exercise) for three months or more. Diagnosis and Psycho
WMI
Arithmetic and Digit-span, Letter-number Sequencing, Intell test
This is characteristic of what type of couselor? an acceptance (usually unconscious) of traditional cultural stereotypes.
culturally-encapsulated, Clinical psy
is a true experimental design used to evaluate the effects of pretesting, since some groups are pretested and others are not
The Solomon four-group design, Res des & Stat
Gestalt, Person-centered, transactional anaylsis
Humanistic Theories, Clinical
we have a natural tendency toward self-actualization or personal growth. Neurosis or pathology occurs due to defensive distortions that prevent this natural tendency from operating.
Humanistic Theory of psychopathology, Clinical
Marlatt and Gordon research on relapse indicate:
75% of all relapses are due to negative affects, interpersonal conflict, and social pressure. Clinical
Verbal IQ
Verbal Comprehension and Working Memory
Performance IQ
Perceptual Organization and Processing Speed
cingulate cortex
is part of the limbic system and is believed to play an excitatory role in emotions and in motivating behaviors. It's also known as the satisfaction center – mediating feelings of satisfaction following eating and sex. Neuro
During which stage, according to Piaget, do the following achievements occur? transitivity, or the ability to mentally sort objects; and hierarchical classification--the ability to sort object into classes and subclasses based on similarities and differences among groups. the ability to conserve
Concrete Operational Stage, devel psy
Deferred imitation is the ability to imitate an observed act at a later point in time.
Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not there.
sensorimotor stage, dev psy
propositional thought is the ability to evaluate the logical validity of verbal assertions without having to use real-world circumstances.
Formal Operational Stage, dev psy
the proportion of variability in one variable that is accounted for by variability in another variable.
coefficient of determination, research des
showing that obese people rely more on external than internal cues in their eating behaviors.
Schachter's classic research on obesity
predicts that worker motivation is related to the comparisons we make between our own situation and that of others.
equity theory I/O psy
the emphasis is on behavioral methodology as well as on communication and problem-solving skills. functional analysis of the spouses' behaviors, contracts stipulating specific behavioral changes, communication skills training, and directive advice regarding solutions to problems.
Social learning theory marital therapy, LT&BT
The brain part or system that manages the circadian rhythm is located in the
Hypothalamus, Neuro
babies with this type of pattern often had mothers who were either very impatient and nonresponsive, or alternatively overstimulating.
insecure/avoidant attachment by Ainsworth, Dev Psy
Neglect is most associated with what attachment pattern?
Disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern
The approach views individuals as being nested within a complex network of interconnected systems that encompass individual, family, and extrafamilial (peer, school, neighborhood) factors. MST is a goal-oriented, intensive family- and community-based treatment that addresses the multiple determinants and factors in each youth’s social network that are contributing to his or her antisocial behavior.
MST or Multisystemic therapy, Dx and psycho
Chronic pain treatment with tricyclic antidepressants is most effective for:
neuropathic pain and headaches, Neuro
Which of the following models of leadership provides a "decision tree" to help a leader determine whether an autocratic, consultative, or consensual decision-making approach is best given the nature of the work situation?
Vroom and Yetton's normative model, I/O psy
Reinforcement
always increases the frequency or likelihood of the targeted response.
Punishment
always decreases the frequency or likelihood of the targeted response.
"Positive"
means that a stimulus is applied LT&BT
"negative"
means that a stimulus is removed. LT&BT
Gould and Gross identified neurogenesis in three areas of the cerebral cortex:
1) the prefrontal region, which controls executive decision making and short-term memory; 2) the inferior temporal region, which plays a crucial role in the visual recognition of objects and faces; and 3) the posterior parietal region, which is important for the representation of objects in space. Neuropsy
Carbamazepine (Tegretol), divalproex (Depakote) and valproic acid (Depakene)
are anti-seizure drugs that have been found to be useful for treating patients with Bipolar Disorder who have not responded well, or cannot tolerate, other treatments. Neuro
proposed that in terms of a leader's style and the favorableness of a situation, the latter was determined by the degree to which the leader could control and influence their subordinate. He described a leader's style by his or her scores on his Least Preferred Coworker Scale.
Fiedler's Contingency Theory, I/O psy
strives to increase an individual's awareness of the self, the environment, and the nature of the self-environment boundary.
Gestalt therapy, clinical psy
Organizations that advocate individual responsibility, consensual-decision making, slow promotion, and holistic knowledge of the organization are using which of the following management philosophies:
Theory Z, I/O psy
describes their least preferred coworker in positive terms and these leaders are primarily relationship oriented
A high LPC leader, I/O Psy
Longitudinal research by John M. Gottman on divorce
The results indicated a combination of criticism, defensiveness, contempt and stonewalling, referred to as the “four horseman of the Apocalypse,” is associated with a high risk for early divorce. This is considered to be the first seven years of marriage, which is when half of all divorces are known to occur. Dev psy
declarative memory includes both
episodic memory (memory of your last birthday, how you spent your last vacation)and semantic memory (red is a color). neuro
Driver, Brousseau, and Hunsaker (1993) identified five types of decision-makers based on how much information is considered and how many alternative solutions are sought.
The five types are: Decisive, Flexible, Hierarchic, Integrative, and Systemic. I/O psy
Transformational and transactional types of leaders.
Transformational leaders raise the consciousness of their employees and transactional leaders focus on rules and maintaining the status quo. I/O psy
three styles of leadership proposed by Lewin, Lipitt, and White.
Autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire: Autocratic leaders make decisions alone, democratic leaders involve subordinates in decision-making, and laissez-faire leaders allow subordinates to make decisions on their own with little guidance I/O psy
Which statistic is used to evaluate inter-rater reliability, or the consistency of ratings assigned by two raters, when data are nominal or ordinal?
Kappa, test const
What 2 devices are used to measure blood flow in the brain using radioactive isotopes. It is, therefore, used to assess brain functioning (rather than structure).
The SPECT (single proton emission computed tomography) (as well as the PET or positron emission tomography) neuro
paired comparison technique
involves comparing each person to every other person in the organization in reference to one or more variables such as productivity. It is a time-consuming and expensive process but results in highly precise and differentiated evaluations of each person in the group evaluated. I/O
Damage to the what lobe produces deficits in declarative memory with episodic memory being affected more than semantic memory.
Temporal, Neuro
Maslow’s five basic needs
arranged in hierarchical order of importance, are physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. Dev Psy
similarities in the learning and performance environments resulted in better transfer.
Thorndike's "identical elements", LT&BT
developed a comprehensive theory of vocational development. According to the theory, individuals choose occupations that are consistent with their self-concept, which develops in a predictable sequence of stages.
Donald Super, I/O psy
Threats to external validity
Order effects, Hawthorne effect, and interaction between selection and treatment, Res Des
In the multitrait-multimethod matrix, a low heterotrait-heteromethod coefficient would indicate:
high divergent validity, test const
Who based their model on Erikson's psychosocial theory of identity? They proposed that a person develops a vocational identity through a process of differentiation (realizing that a career does not fit with one's personality) and integration (identifying with a career).
Tiedeman and O'Hara, I/O psy
What design has at least one between-subjects independent variable and at least one repeated measures variable (or within-subjects variable). i.e. a study that is comparing the effects on three different groups of subjects (i.e., a between-subjects variable) combined with the use of a repeated measures (within-subjects) variable
mixed research design, res des
Kohler's theory of cognition
"Ah-ha" experience with Chimps, called it insight learning, which is a sudden cognitive restructuring of the environment. LT&BT
B. Whiting and J. Whiting's study on altruism
They found that responsibility for the welfare of others was the most important factor in the development of altruism. Social psy
amount of variability accounted for”
eta squared, Res des
only affects males and is caused by an extra X chromosome (XXY).
Klinefelter's Syndrome, Dev psy
The Racial Identity Attitude Scale, developed by Helms and Parham (1996), is based on Cross' (1971, 1978) stages of African-American identity development.
The stages are pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization. Clinical
one of the earliest theories of emotion, proposes that we feel after our body reacts (i.e., that we are sad because we cry).
The James-Lange theory, Neuro
a variable that accounts for or explains the effects of an IV on a DV. That is, the IV affects the mediator variable, which affects the DV.
A mediator variable, res des
a creative elaboration of ideas prompted by a stimulus. It enables one to "diverge" from traditional approaches, or what is commonly referred to as "thinking out of the box."
Divergent thinking LT&BT
asserts that children gradually progress through three stages. Gender identity, usually gained by age three, is the ability to correctly label own gender and identify others as boys/men and girls/women. Gender stability - knowledge, usually gained by age four years, that reflects an understanding that one’s gender remains the same throughout life. Gender constancy: realization, around age 5, 6 or 7 years, that one’s gender stays the same even with alterations in appearance, behaviors, or desires.
Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory of gender concept development, grounded in Piagetian theory, Dev psy
strategies are based on the assumption that people are basically rational and, if they have all relevant information about a situation, will act in accord with their self-interest.
Empirical-rational, I/O psy
proposes that positive and negative emotions are most likely to occur in a relationship when the partner's behavior interrupts the individual's typical on-going behaviors. Thus, when things are running smoothly, there are fewer interruptions and less intense emotions. Although the partners are highly interdependent during this period, they are also more likely to underestimate their emotional investment.
Ellen Berscheid's Emotion-in-Relationships Model
coefficient of multiple determination
R2 Res design
is the smallest physical difference between two stimuli that can be recognized as a difference. Although just noticeable differences are considered to represent psychologically equal units, their corresponding physical differences are unequal.
A just noticeable difference (or difference threshold)
attributes aggressiveness in children to certain parent-child interactions. According to this model, children initially learn aggressive behavior from their parents who model aggression through their use of harsh discipline and ignore or reinforce their child's aggressiveness. In addition, these actions become increasingly coercive and eventually generalize to school.
Patterson's model, Dev psy
focuses on a specific client and the consultant advises the consultee in regard to the best course of action in working with the client. The consultant gathers information about the client and then makes recommendations to the consultee regarding a treatment plan or course of action
Client-centered case consultation, Comm psy
focuses on the skills, knowledge, and ability of the consultee
consultee-centered consultation,Comm psy
the ability to hold several facts or thoughts in memory temporarily while solving a problem or performing a task. Baddeley defined the process of rapid verbal repetition of the to-be-remembered information to facilitate maintaining it in working memory, as an "articulatory loop."
working memory, LT&BT
Ravens Progressive Matrices
is an intelligence test completely non-dependent on language. It's a non-verbal assessment of abstract reasoning and a fairly good predictor of general cognitive functioning, School psy/intell
Damage to this lobe causes left-right confusion. In addition, tactile agnosia (the inability to identify objects by touch using the contralateral hand) and it contains the primary somatosensory cortex.
damage to the parietal lobe, neuro
predicts that leaders will be most successful when they show followers the path for achieving goals. This theory is also a contingency theory, which means that it proposes that the best leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the situation.
Houses path-goal theory, I/O psy
is divided into two regions: the tectum and the tegmentum. The substantia nigra (a.) is located in the tegmentum and is part of the brain’s sensorimotor system. The inferior colliculus (c.) is part of the tectum and is involved in audition. The superior colliculus (d.) is also part of the tectum and mediates vision.
The area of the brain referred to as the “midbrain” is also known as the mesencephalon, neuro
loss of sensation due to brain injury is likely to involve the somatosensory cortex. You are also aware that the somatosensory cortex is located on the
postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe, neuro