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81 Cards in this Set

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3 Stages of Alzheimer's Dementia
In Stage 1, which lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things. In Stage 2, which lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become apathetic. In the final stage -- Stage 3, which lasts 1-3 years, there is serious impairment in most areas. During Stage 3 they may lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory infection.
Patients with depression typically have:
a more rapid onset of REM sleep, decreased percentage of slow wave sleep, and increased percentage of REM sleep.
Sleep patterns
OCD is associated with what part of the brain?
Caudate Nucleus (so is ADHD)
Same as ADHD
Vivienne Cass stages of homosexual identity development, which is non-age specific.
The stages are: identity awareness (conscious of being different); identity comparison (believes may be homosexual, acts heterosexual); identity tolerance (realizes is homosexual); identity acceptance (begins to explore gay community); identity pride (becomes active in gay community); and synthesis (fully accepts self and others).
Dopamine Hypothesis was originally based on two important findings
that antipsychotic medications, which can cause motor disturbances, affect dopamine in the brain; and that stimulants activate dopamine receptors.
Eric Berne believes that this reflects a person's characteristic pattern of giving and receiving strokes.
Berne called a person's life plan a script
Social identity theory (Tajfel)
people strive to maintain and enhance their self-esteem, and this is associated with two components: personal and social identity. Social identity theory states that social identity, the aspect of self-esteem based on group membership, is enhanced by believing one’s own group (the ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups).
Alzheimer's Dementia is most often associated with damage to the
Temporal Lobe, This is consistent with the important role of the temporal lobe in long-term memory
Richard Stuart use of operant conditioning and social exchange theory in marital therapy
He encourages couples to focus on positive aspects of each other and to use reciprocal reinforcement or "quid pro quo." He maintained that in successful marriages rewards exceed costs and are built on positive reinforcement, rather than negative reinforcement, punishment, or coercion.
Janet Helms' (1995) White Racial Identity Development Model, the final stage
Rutter listed what as predictors of child psychopathology.
low socioeconomic status, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality, and placement of children outside the home
paradoxical intention
is based on the assumption that a person avoids a certain behavior because of the anticipatory anxiety the behavior arouses. When a person deliberately engages in the behavior, a condition of incompatibility is set up and this condition serves to eliminate the anticipatory anxiety. The idea is that engaging in the behavior (or a wish to engage in the behavior) is incompatible with fear of that behavior and, consequently, the fear is neutralized.
Factors that typically distinguish Dissociative Amnesia from amnesia due to known physical causes:
in Dissociative Amnesia, memory loss is primarily for autobiographical information, cognitive abilities are usually preserved, and memory loss can be reversed.
Perceptual Organization index
calculated with scores on picture completion, block design, and matrix reasoning.
Processing Speed
based upon digit symbol and symbol search.
Verbal Comprehension index
uses scores on the vocabulary, similarities, and information subtests.
differential validity
when it has different validity coefficients for different groups, which is what is suggested by different regression line slopes in a scatterplot.
divergent validity
The extent a test does not correlate with measures of an unrelated construct
Holland's theory on career choice.
proposes that interests are actually determined by personality. In addition, it proposes that workers will be happy and most productive when their personality matches the characteristics of the work environment.
serial position effect and memory
predicts that the poorest recall will be for information in the middle of a list. Research on the serial position effect has shown that memory for information at the beginning and end of a list varies, depending on whether there is a delay before recall is required. When there is a brief delay, memory for information at the beginning of the list is better than memory for information at the end of the list.
D. G. Perry and K. Bussey theory of aggression in children
focus on family interaction factors in the development of aggressive behavior. They propose that aggression is related to parental rejection and lack of warmth and use of harsh forms of discipline.
A low selection ratio
means that there's lots of applicant to choose from (which is preferable to having only a few to choose from).
Moderate base rate
is preferable to a high or low base rate because this means that there's room for improvement in the selection process.
Types of sensory memory
Visual stimuli are stored as "iconic" memories; auditory stimuli are stored as "echoic" memories; and kinesthetic stimuli are stored as "haptic" memories.
Criterion Contamination
If the rater knows the ratees' scores on the predictor, the rating process can be contaminated. it results in a spuriously high validity coefficient.
Additive tasks
permit the addition of individual efforts so that the outcome is a combination of individual contributions. The combined efforts of all group members will determine if the tasks are completed and team members receive a bonus.
compensatory tasks
the average performance of all group members represents the group's product.
disjunctive tasks
the group must choose one of many alternative ways to do the task. Thus, performance on a task depends on the performance of the most competent group member, because if one person can complete the task, the task gets completed.
conjunctive tasks
everyone must achieve a given goal in order for the task to be complete. As a result, task performance depends on the performance of the least competent group member.
Brain imaging techniques have identified abnormalities in which areas among people with Tourette Syndrome, Autistic Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
frontal lobes and basal ganglia
Which of the following proposed a behavioral theory of career decision making?
Lewin's field theory
focused on the immediate present
Glasser’s Reality Therapy
when an individual is capable of fulfilling his or her own needs for survival, power, belonging, freedom and fun, without harming self or infringing on the rights of others, then he or she has developed a “success identity.” When the needs are met irresponsibly then the individual has developed a “failure identity
the term is used when a person no longer responds to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented
Research on subordinates' satisfaction with their leader at work has found that the strongest determinant is:
consideration and task orientation
The ability to "conserve" develops during which stage?
Concrete operational
factors which contribute to groupthink
high cohesiveness, homogeneous backgrounds and values, and a strong, directive leader
Although there is a genetic component to all personality disorders, there is a strong evidence of a genetic component in:
Antisocial, Schizotypal, Schizoid, & Paranoid
central limit theorem
the shape of a sampling distribution of means approaches normality as sample size increases
Bandura's Participant modeling
sometimes called contact desensitization or modeling with guided participation) refers to the technique of demonstrating a task and then having the client participate. Participant modeling has the additional benefit of increasing the client's feelings of self-efficacy
Holland's six personality types for career choice
Realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising & conventional
hexagonal shape
House's Path-Goal theory: Instrumental leaders
provide specific guidelines and establish clear rules and procedures
House's Path-Goal theory: Supportive leaders
establish supportive relationships with subordinates
House's Path-Goal theory: Participative leaders
include subordinates in decision-making
House's Path-Goal theory: Achievement-oriented leaders
set challenging goals and encourage higher levels of performance
Chin & Benne's Organizational Change Strategies: Empiracle-Rational
based on the assumption that people are basically rational and if they have all relevant info about a sit, will act in accord with their self-interest
Chin & Benne's Organizational Change Strategies: Normative-Reeducative
social norms underlie patterns of behavior in organizations. focus on changing attitudes, values, and relationships in order to bring about change and acceptance of change
Chin & Benne's Organizational Change Strategies: Power-Coercive
uses rewards, punishment, or legitimate authority to coerce employees to comply with change.
Individual decision making: Rational-Economic Model
attempt to find the optimal solution. search for all possible solutions and weigh alternatives until they make a decision that results in the greatest benefit for the org, "maximizing."
Individual decision making: Administrative Model
evlauate solutions as they become available and selecting the first solution that is minimally acceptable, "satisficing."
Driver's decision making styles: decisive
satisficing and uni-focused, speed and efficiency, inflexible and shortsighted
Driver's decision making styles: flexible
satisficing, multi-focus. moves fast, willing to drop s/t in favor of another, little structure
Driver's decision making styles: hierarchic
maximizing and uni-focus. use a lot of info to identify the best solution, work to develop a detailed specific plan. thorough, tend to be rigid and over-controlling.
Driver's decision making styles: integrative style
maximizing and mulit-focus. uses a lot of info to evaluation situations and develop a variety of solutions. pursue several courses of actions simultaneously, value creativity. best with groups
Driver's decision making styles: systemic
complex, combines hierarchic and integrative. maximizing, but can be uni-focused and multi-focused. produces multiple, detailed solutions, with long-term goals, but details apply to near future.
Highest rate of suicide in what age group:
over 85 years old (70 per 100,000)
largest group of child abuse victims
under 2 years old (63%, average age 15.5 months)
Sensorimotor stage
birth to 2, child learns about objects through sensory info, achieves object permanence and deferred imitation
preoperational stage
2-7, extraordinary increase in symbolic thought, limited by egocentrism, magical thinking, animism, conservation, centration
concrete operational stage
7-12, develops reversibility and decentration, conservation develops sequentially, transitivity, hierarchical classification
formal operational stage
12 onward, begins to process abstract, hypothetical info, hypothetical-deductive reasoning and propositional thought, egocentrism, imaginary audience and personal fable, not everyone reaches this stage.
Secure attachment
actively explore , friendly but prefer mother to stranger, distress when mom leaves, seeks comfort when she returns, mothers are emotionally sensitive and responsive
anxious/avoidant attachment
uninterested in environment, show little distress when mom leaves and avoid her when she returns, mothers are either impatient and nonrespnosive or overly responsive, involved and stimulating
anxious/resistant attachment
anxious even when their mother is present, become very destressed when she leaves, ambivalent when she returns and may resist her attempts to make contact, wary of strangers, even with mom, mothers are inconsistent in their responses, sometimes being indifferent and other times enthusiastic
disorganized/disoriented attachment
show conflicting responses to their mother and alternate between avoidance/resistance and proximity-seeking. dazed, confused and apprehensive, children usually have been maltreated
Kohlberg's moral development I. Preconventional
Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation, avoids punishment Stage 2: instrumental hedonistic orientation, that which satisfies is moral
Kohlberg's II. Conventional
Stage 3: good boy-good girl (social relations), maintains the approval of relatives and friends, Stage 4: Auth and social order, maintaining orientation, obeying society's laws and rules
Kohlberg's III. Post-conventional
Stage 5: social contract and individual rights orientation, upholds laws, but recognizes that they can be ignored or changed, Stage 6: universal ethical principles orientation, fundamental universal ethical principles that transcend legal standards
Freud's stages
oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital
Erikson's stages
trust v. mistrust, autonomy v. shame and doubt, initialtive v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, indentity v. identity confusion, intamacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, and ego integrity v. despair
2 recessive genes, lacks enzyme to digest phenylalanine, causes severe MR, can be prevented by diet until 6-9 years old.
two recessive genes disorders
PKU, Tay-Sachs disease, sickle-cell anemia, and cystic fibrosis
Klinefelter's syndrome
affects males and caused by an extra X chrom, show incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics and are often sterile
Turner's syndrome
all or part of the second X chrom is missing in a female, do not develop secondary sex characteristics and are sterile, short stature, stubby fingers and webbed neck
Fragile X syndrome
weak site on the X chromosome, more evident in males, mod to sev retardation, facial deformities, and rapid, staccato speech
fluoxetine (prozac), paroxetine (paxil), & sertraline(zoloft)
imipramine (tofranil), clomipramine (anafranil), and amitriptyline (elavil)
MAOI's (atypical depression)
phenelzine (nardil) & tranylcypromine (parnate)
Salvador Minuchin family therapy
Structural family therapy and is based on and extends general family systems theory. The goal is to restructure maladaptive family structures, including family subsystems and boundaries.
Meyer’s (2003) minority stress model
distinguishes between distal factors, which are external, objective events and conditions, and proximal factors, which are an individual’s perceptions and appraisals of events and conditions identifies three proximal stressors –– expectations of rejection, concealment of sexual orientation, and internalized homophobia. Minority group status and exposure to “prejudice events” such as discrimination and violence are identified as a distal events or as an
“environmental circumstance”
Tourette's disorder
DSM requires the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics for at least one year.