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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what info is collected for a job analysis
job description

knowledge, skills, abilities needed

measures to evaluate job performance
Diff bet. job analysis & job evaluation
job analysis
- to clarify requirements of job

job evaluation
- to determine relative worth of jobs
3 types rater biases
leniency/strictness bias

central tendancy bias

halo effect
Def: leniency/strictness bias
raters avoid middle range of rating scale
Def: central tendency bias
raters use middle of scale
2 reasons why an employment procedure can lead to adverse impact
1. differential validity
i.e. measure valid for one group, but not another

2. unfairness
Ex: BFOQ
bona fide occupational qualification

e.g.
hiring a male for a play
hiring only women to be women's washroom attendants
Def: work samples
prospective employee performs tasks similar to job

a job predictor, esp. clerical, mechanical or technical
Use: Assessment Centres
for managerial level jobs

to assess level, need for promotion etc.

"in-basket test"
Def & purpose: needs assessment
Analysis of 4 domains:
organization
task/job
person
demographic

used prior to training program
difference between job rotation & cross-training
job rotation
- trainees learn several jobs (e.g. a manager)

cross-training
- workers trained to perform diff tasks
def: vestibule training
physical replication or simulation of work environment
primary cause of turnover
disillusionment with one's work
theories of career choice
Super - self-concept

Roe - personality & basic needs

Holland - personality types
theories of organizational effectiveness
scientific management

classical organization theory

human relations movement

theory X versus theory Y

international perspective & theory Z
theory: scientific management
Taylor (1911)

employees motivated by econimic self-interest

differential piece-rate system
theory: classical organization
Weber (1947)

bureaucracy
hierarchy

division of labour & delegation of authority
theory: human relations movement
Mayo (1927-1932)

worker needs, motives & relationships

Hawthorne Effect

- originally looking at effects of physical conditions on job performance

- fouund productivity inc due to novelty of experiemtn, workers' interest, special attention as research subjects, smaller group
hawthorne effect
- originally looking at effects of physical conditions on job performance

- found productivity inc due to:

novelty of experiment workers' interest
special attention as research subjects
smaller working groups
theory: X vs Y
McGregor (1960)

manager's vier of his/her role depends on manager's assumptions about employees characteristics.

X Managers - employees dislike work, so need to direct & control

Y Managers - employees are capable of self-ontrol & self-direction

* Theory Y more effective
theory: international perspective & theory Z
incorporating Japanese approach into American orgnizational philosophy (Theory A + J = Z)
theories of motivation (7)
need-hierarchy
ERG
need for achievement
two-factor
goal-setting theory
equity theory
expectancy (VIE) theory
need-hierarchy theory

re: motivation
Maslow

5 basic instinctual needs arranged in a hierarchy
- once a need has been satisfied, it's no longer a motivator

employers should fit jobs/rewards with each employee's needs

money not important
ERG theory

re: motivation
Alderfer reduced Malow's 5 basic needs to 3:

existence
relatedness
growth

can be motivated by more than 1 need at a time
need for achievement

re: motivation
McClelland

3 needs acting as motivators:

need for achievment
need for power
need for affiliation
two-factor theory

re: motivation
Herzberg

Theory of motivation & satisfaction

lower-level needs
e.g. fullfilled by hygiene, pay, job security, benefits

high-level needs
e.g. fullfilled by "motivator factors" incl advancement, recognition, achievement
def: job enrichment
Herzberg

redesigning job to combine several jobs into one to give more meaning, responsibility, control
diff between job enrichment & job enlargement
job enrichment
- inc job's vertical job loading by giving more higher-level tasks

job enlargement
- inc job's horixonal loading by inc number & variety of tasks
goal-setting theory

re: motivation
Locke

employees motivated to achieve goals if they've consciously accepted them, and are therefore committed

Management of Objectives (MBO) is based on this theory
equity theory

re: motivation
Adams

social comparison of input/outcome ratios

if diff from others, can experience a "state of inequity"
expectancy (VIE) theory

re: motivation
Porter & Lawler; Vroom

motivation is a function of:

valence
instrumentality
expectancy
valence
theories of leadership (6)
contingency theory
path-goal theory
situational leadership
Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative model
leadership grid
influential leadership
contingency theory

re: leadership
Fiedler

leadership effectiveness results from leader's style & favourableness of situation (or influence)

"Least Preferred Coworker" (LPC)

low LPC - effective in very favourable or very unfavourable situations

high LPC - effective in moderately favourable situations
path-goal theory

re: leadership
House

effective leader is one who helps subordinates achieve personal goals
situational leadership

re: leadership
Hersey & Blanchard

4 leadership styles assoc w/ combinations of task and relationship orientation:

telling - t high; r low
selling - t high; r high
participating - t low; r high
delegating - t low; r low

* leader's style should match employee's maturity
Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative model

re: leadership
leader's decision-making styles:

Autocratic
Consultative
Group

* use a "decision tree" to determine which decision-making style fits a situation
leadership grid

re: leadership
Blake & McCanse

attitudes towards production and people

grid training desined to develop leaders with high concern for both
influential leadership

re: leadership
1. charismatic leaders

2. transformational leaders
- recognize need for change
- opposite of trasactional leaders
stages of group development
forming
storming
norming
performing
adjourning
def: idiosyncracy credits
these are accumulated through conforming to group norms, contributing, being a group leader

allows a person to occasionally deviate from group norms
types of group tasks (4)
additive
- individual contributions added together

compensatory task
- inputs averaged together

disjunctive task
- group selects one solution

conjunctive task
- group's overall performance limited by worst-performing member
def: social loafing
individual exerts less effort in group than he would on own
2 conditions that lead to bad groups decision making
groupthink
- directive, high stress, pressure to conform... desire for cohesiveness overrides critical thinking

group polarization
groups make more extreme decisions than individual members would have made alone, e.g. risky shift phenomenon
3 methods for improving group decision-making
brainstorming
nominal group technique (NGTT)
Delphi technique
nominal group technique (NGT)

re: group decision-making
group members privately write down solution, each is discussed, then ranked.
Delphi technique

re: group decision-making
anonymous solutions are pooled together, summarized, then each participant votes on decision
3 types of justice

re: fairness of organizational decisions
distributive justice
- fairness of outcomes of decision

procedural justice
- fairness of way in which decision was made

interactional justice
- how people feel about the way they've been treated
organizational development interventions (7)
quality of work life programs (QWL)
self-managed work teams
sociotechnical approach
process consultation
survey feedback
total quality management
quality of work life programs

re: organizational development intervention
emphasizes employee empowerment

"quality circles" - small group brainstorms probs & presents to managment

QC inc attitude, but not productivity
self-managed work teams

re: organizational development intervention
similar to quality circles, but these teams make decisions, instead of mangement.

use teamthink (diff from group think in that divergent views are encouraged)
sociotechnical approach

re: organizational development intervention
technological change must be accompanied by planned changes in social patterns
process consultation

re: organizational development intervention
consultant observes mtgs and shares opinion re: interactions

focus is on behaviours, not attitudes
survey feedback

re: organizational development intervention
focus on employee attitudes & beliefs

confidential surveys
total quality management

re: organizational development intervention
unique focus:

customer satisfaction
employee involvement
improvement in goods & services

top level committment to quality
force field analysis of planned change

re: organizations
Lewin (1951)

address driving & restraining forces

3 stages:

unfreezing - make receptive to change
changing
refreezing - reinforce changes
3 strategies of organizational change
rational-empirical strategy
normative-reeducative strategy
power-coercive strategy
rational-empirical strategy

re: strategies of organizational change
people are rational, and will not resist change once they recognize benefits

provide info
normative-reeducative strategy

re: strategies of organizational change
peer pressure & sociocultural norms force change

use group discussion to overcome resistance to change
power-coercive strategy

re: strategies of organizational change
use power to coerce

use rewards & punishments
3 formal methods of conflict resolution
bargaining

mediation

arbitration
bargaining (or negotiating)

re: conflict resolution
opposing sides exchange offers, counteroffers & concessions

least effective if viewed as a "win-lose" situation

if "deadlock", move to mediation
mediation

re: conflict resolution
used a neutral 3rd party to clarify issues and open lines of communcation

mediator has no power to impose a settlement
arbitration

re: conflict resolution
1. binding arbitration
- 2 sides agree in advance to accept decision of arbitrator

2. voluntary arbitration
- 2 parties agree only to arbitration process

3. final offer arbitration
- artibrator must select one of the final offers made
Yerkes-Dodson Law

re: arousal & boredom
highest levels of learning & performance assoc w/ moderate levels of arousal, with moderate task difficulty