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381 Cards in this Set

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What is the full name of Title VII?
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
What is Title VII?
The original Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Act. It states that one cannot discriminate on the basis of sex, race, etc.
What does Title VII say?
It states that one cannot discriminate in hiring on the basis of sex, race, etc.
What are the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection?
The use of any test that adversely affects hiring, promotion, or other selection procedures constitutes discrimination unless said test is validated, has utility, and no alternatives are available.
Who created the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection, and when?
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), in 1978.
When was the Americans with Disabilities Act passed?
1990
What four things does the Americans with Disabilities Act say?
It bans discrimination in
1. Employment
2. Transportation
3. Access to public buildings
and
4. Requires that companies make reasonable accommodations for disabled individuals.
What is a "qualified individual with disability" under ADA?
One who can perform the essential functions of the employment position with or without reasonable accommodation.
What are "reasonable accommodations" under ADA? What are four things it includes?
Making existing facilities readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities.

1. Job restructuring
2. Modified work schedules
3. Adjustment/modification of exams
4. Acquisition/modification of equipment.
What does the ADA say regarding testing?
Standards, employment tests, or other criteria which screen out an individual with disabilities, or a class of individuals with disabilities, is discrimination-- unless the test/criteria is shown to be job-related and consistent with business necessity.
What does the ADA say about substance abuse?
It prohibits discrimination against someone who has successfully completed or is currently participating in a drug rehabilitation program, and is not currently using drugs.
What does the ADA say about drug testing?
It takes no stand.
What was the year of the case Griggs vs. Duke Power Company, and what did it determine?
1971.

Tests which measure *broad abilities* in which minority testees pass at much lower rates than majority testees are unfair to use to make decisions of hiring and promotion. Only tests of skills necessary for a particular job are permitted.
What are three forms of testing discrimination?
1. Adverse impact (the ratio of *percentage of accepted majority applicants* to *percentage of accepted minority applicants* is less than 1 to 0.8)
2. Unfairness (minorities and non-minorities perform differently on the predictor test, but similarly on the criterion).
3. Differential Validity (the test is a more valid predictor for some groups than for others)
What is adverse impact?
A form of testing discrimination, in which the ratio of *percentage of accepted majority applicants* to *percentage of accepted minority applicants* is less than 1 to 0.8. Also known as the "four-fifths rule."
What is differential validity?
A form of testing discrimination, in which the test is a more valid predictor for some groups than for others.
What does "unfairness" mean in terms of testing discrimination?
Minorities and non-minorities perform differently on the predictor test, but similarly on the criterion
What exam is often cited as an example of testing unfairness?
The MCAT. Members of minority groups tend to score worse on the MCAT, but perform equally well once in medical school.
How common is differential validity, as a form of testing discrimination?
Rare-- previous findings may have resulted from low sample size (according to PsychPrep).
What are the six major tasks of human resources departments?
1. Job analysis
2. Techniques for employee selection
3. Use of psychological tests
4. Performance appraisals
5. Training and development
6. Career development theories
What is a job analysis?
A description in specific terms of the component tasks performed by workers on a particular job.
What are three components of a job analysis?
1. Job description (specific information about the job tasks)
2. Job specifications (specific information about the job requirements)
3. Job evaluation (formal process which determines the financial worth of a specific job to an organization)
What are five elements which may be included in a job analysis?
1. Tools/equipment used
2. Operations performed
3. Education/training required
4. Wages paid
5. Safety hazards and other unique attributes of the job
What are four uses for the data collected through job analysis?
1. How to validate selection procedures
2. Determining wages
3. Ascertaining training needs
4. Ensuring compliance with EEO guidelines regarding fair employment-- that all procedures are based on criteria that are *job-related*
What are three ways of obtaining data for a job analysis?
1. Open-ended interviews
2. Structured interviews
3. Critical-incident technique (ascertaining the specific actions that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job)
What is the critical-incident technique?
Ascertaining the specific actions that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job. E.g., treating customers politely vs. failing to follow through on customer complaints.
What are five means of selecting and screening employees?
1. Biodata (biographical information)
2. Interviews
3. Tests
4. Assessment centers
5. References/ Letters of recommendation
What is biodata?
Biographical information used in selecting and screening employees.
What are three forms of biodata?
1. The standard application blank (education, employment history, etc.)
2. The weighted application blank (same as standard, but weights
certain variables as more important)
3. The biographical inventory/biographical information blank (examines
applicant’s life in detail, asks questions which are correlated with
desirable behaviors, validated against a specific criteria, such as
successful work performance).
What is the standard application blank?
A means of collecting biodata; asks for education, employment history, etc.
What is the weighted application blank?
A means of collecting biodata; like the standard application blank, it asks for education, employment history, etc. but weights
certain variables as more important
What is the biographical inventory/biographical information blank?
A means of collecting biodata; examines
applicant’s life in detail, asks questions which are correlated with
desirable behaviors, validated against a specific criteria, such as
successful work performance.
What is the form of biodata with the best prediction of job success
and turnover?
The biographical inventory/biographical information blank.
How common is the biographical inventory in employee screenings, and why?
Rare-- only 7% of American companies use it, because their development
can be time-consuming and costly.
What method of employee screening has the worst criterion-related validity?
Interviews.
What three factors make interviews have more criterion-related validity?
1. Structured interviews
2. Multiple interviewers
3. Interviewers are trained
What’s the main problem with interviews?
Interviewers may be biased, and there is a high rate of disagreement
among interviewers if the interview is unstructured.
What are five forms of interviewer biases?
1. First impression
2. Negative information (one or two negative items cause the
interviewer to overlook strengths or accomplishments)
3. The contrast effect (candidate’s ratings are affected (positively
or negatively) by comparison to the previous candidate)
4. Interviewer prejudices
5. The halo effect (generalizing from one characteristic to the entire
candidate, either positively or negatively. E.g., physical
attractiveness.)
What is negative information?
A form of interviewer bias in which one or two negative items cause the
interviewer to overlook strengths or accomplishments.
What is the contrast effect?
A form of interviewer bias in which a candidate’s ratings are affected (positively
or negatively) by comparison to the previous candidate.
What is the halo effect?
Generalizing from one characteristic to the entire
candidate, either positively or negatively. E.g., physical
attractiveness.
What are five types of tests used in screening employees?
1. Cognitive ability and aptitude tests
2. Personality tests
3. Interest tests
4. Work sample tests
5. Test batteries
How effective are cognitive ability tests as a method of screening employees?
Quite good predictors of job success. Commonly used.
What is a common cognitive ability test used as a method of screening employees?
Wonderlic Personnel test
What is a common aptitude test used as a method of screening employees?
Typing tests
How effective are personality tests used as a method of screening employees?
Poor predictors of job performance.
How effective are interest tests as a means of employee screening?
Poor predictors of job success, but do correlate with job satisfaction.
What is an example of an interest test?
Holland’s self-directed search
How effective are work sample tests as a means of employee screening?
Have high content and criterion-related validity, more valid for minorities than other screening methods.
What type of employee screening is most likely to be valid for “minorities”?
Work-sample tests.
What is a work-sample test?
Requires a job applicant to demonstrate sample work behavior (e.g., type a
memo, cook a burger)
How effective are test batteries as a means of employee screening?
Good predictors of job performance.
What jobs use test batteries for screening?
Upper management.
What is an assessment center?
Places job applicants in a simulated job situation so that their
behaviors under stress can be observed/elicited. Involves work
samples. 6-12 candidates are evaluated as they go through a series of
exercises over several days, and are interviewed extensively. May
also be given personality and intelligence tests.
What is another name for an assessment center?
Situational testing.
When were assessment centers/situational testing first used?
By the German army in the 1920s.
How effective are assessment centers at employee screening?
Very good criterion-related validity.
What are the two major techniques used by an assessment center to screen applicants?
1. In-basket technique (applicants are given typical problems and
questions managers would expect to find when they return from
vacation, and process this information in a fixed period of time, and are expected to justify their decision afterwards.)
2. The leaderless group discussion
What is an in-basket technique?
Technique used by an assessment center to screen applicants; applicants are given typical problems and
questions managers would expect to find when they return from
vacation, and process this information in a fixed period of time, and are expected to justify their decision afterwards.
How effective are references and letters of recommendation as
employee-screening techniques?
Often misleading-- they come only from people who will give positive reviews.
What are three employee selection procedures used to make decisions based on multiple criteria?
1. Multiple regression technique. (Compensatory: low scores on one
predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another predictor.
Requires computing a multiple regression equation.)
2. Multiple cutoff (Noncompensatory: only applicants who meet/exceed
the cutoff on *all* of the predictors are considered.)
3. Multiple hurdle (Noncompensatory: Predictors are applied in a
particular order, and an applicant must pass the cutoff score on the
firs predictor in order to continue with the selection process.)
What is a multiple regression technique?
An employee selection procedure used to make decisions based on multiple criteria; Compensatory: low scores on one
predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another predictor.
Requires computing a multiple regression equation.
What is a multiple cutoff technique?
An employee selection procedure used to make decisions based on multiple criteria; Noncompensatory: only applicants who meet/exceed
the cutoff on *all* of the predictors are considered
What is a multiple hurdle technique?
An employee selection procedure used to make decisions based on multiple criteria; Noncompensatory: Predictors are applied in a
particular order, and an applicant must pass the cutoff score on the
firs predictor in order to continue with the selection process.
Which is the most efficient employee selection procedure used to make decisions based on multiple criteria?
Multiple hurdle. All applicants receive the quick, inexpensive
selection techniques, while only a few are given the more expensive
ones (e.g, interviews.)
What are the three factors believed to compose performance?
1. Ability (innate capacities and individual attributes)
2. Motivation (measured by work effort)
3. Opportunity (related to environmental variables, including
organizational support)
For what five tasks are performance appraisals useful?
1. Decisions about salary/promotion/bonuses
2. Identification of employees strengths and weaknesses
3. Provision of feedback to employees
4. Validation of selection criteria
5. Determination of training requirements
What are three types of criteria for performance appraisals?
1. Objective (easily observable and quantifiable)
2. Subjective (ratings by supervisors, peers, subordinates, self)
3. Focused on results rather than merit (management by objective)
Name four examples of objective methods of performance evaluation.
1. Quantity of output
2. Quality of output (e.g, number of errors)
3. Accidents
4. Absenteeism
What are two categories of subjective methods of evaluation?
1. Comparative (employees compared against each other in a brutal death-match)
2. Individual/absolute
What are three types of comparative methods of evaluation of employees?
1. Straight ranking (listing workers from best to worst)
2. Forced distribution (people ranked in a bell curve or another such distribution)
3. Paired comparison (each compared to each other employee in pairs)
What is forced distribution?
A comparative method of evaluation of employees; people ranked in a bell curve or another such
distribution
What is paired comparison?
A comparative method of evaluation of employees;each compared to each other employee in pairs.
What are five types of individual/absolute methods of evaluation of employees?
1. Graphic rating scales (on several aspects of a job)
2. BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) Based on critical
incidents-- aspects of a job that have been linked to successful job
performance.
3. BOS (Behavioral Observation Scale) (Rates the extent to which a
person engages in every behavior (e.g., how often they finish projects
on time)
4. Forced choice (rater must choose between two seemingly equally
desirable choices (e.g., is reliable vs is agreeable) which controls
for the halo affect and other biases.)
5. Behavioral checklist (checks off all the adjectives or descriptions
that apply to the employee being rated)
What are five types of individual/absolute methods of evaluation of employees?
1. Graphic rating scales (on several aspects of a job)
2. BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) Based on critical
incidents-- aspects of a job that have been linked to successful job
performance.
3. BOS (Behavioral Observation Scale) (Rates the extent to which a
person engages in every behavior (e.g., how often they finish projects
on time)
4. Forced choice (rater must choose between two seemingly equally
desirable choices (e.g., is reliable vs is agreeable) which controls
for the halo affect and other biases.)
5. Behavioral checklist (checks off all the adjectives or descriptions
that apply to the employee being rated)
Define and describe BARS?
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales) A method of individual/absolute evaluation of employees based on critical incidents-- aspects of a job that have been linked to successful job performance.
What does BARS stand for?
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
What are BOS?
Behavioral Observation Scale.
A method of individual/absolute evaluation of employees which rates the extent to which a
person engages in every behavior (e.g., how often they finish projects
on time)
What does BOS stand for?
Behavioral Observation Scale.
What is forced choice, as a form of individual/absolute evaluation of employees?
Rater must choose between two seemingly equally
desirable choices (e.g., is reliable vs is agreeable) which controls
for the halo affect and other biases.
What are some problems with BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales)
as a method of evaluating employees?
Scale development is expensive and time-consuming, and these scales do not tend to measure actual day-to-day activities, but rather, hypothetical situations.
What is Management By Objectives (MBO)?
Mutual agreement between employees and supervisors on goals to be
achieved in a given time. Actively involves employees in their own
evaluations. Consists of goal-setting and performance review.
What does MBO stand for?
Management By Objectives
What are the two stages of Management by Objectives (MBO)?
1. Goal-setting
2. Performance review
How effective is Management by Objectives (MBO)?
Fairly-- meta-analysis shows an average gain of 44.6%
What are the two major forms of errors in evaluation of employees?
1. Instrument errors
2. Rater errors
What are two types of instrument errors in evaluation of employees?
1. Deficiency errors (excluding important aspects of the job from evaluations).
2. Contamination errors (rating an employee on non-important aspects
of the job.)
What are deficiency errors?
A type of instrument error in evaluation of employees; excluding important aspects of the job from evaluations
What are contamination errors?
A type of instrument error in evaluation of employees; rating an employee on non-important aspects
of the job.
What are five types of rater errors in evaluation of employees?
1. Task-based rater bias (rating *everyone* at a similar level on a
certain task)
2. Ratee-based errors (biases about one attribute of the ratee-- e.g., race)
3. Recency bias (being most influenced by recent employee behavior--
just last month in a supposedly-yearly eval)
4. Attribution error (attributing poor performance to internal factors
in employees the rater dislikes, and to external factors in employees
they do like)
5. Supervisors tend to rate employees higher when the supervisor took
part in the hiring process.
What is task-based rater bias?
A form of rater error in evaluation of employees; rating *everyone* at a similar level on a certain task.
What are ratee-based errors?
A form of rater error in evaluation of employees; biases about one attribute of the ratee-- e.g., race.
What is recency bias?
A form of rater error in evaluation of employees; being most influenced by recent employee behavior-- e.g.,
just last month in a supposedly-yearly eval
What is attribution error?
A form of rater error in evaluation of employees; attributing poor performance to internal factors
in employees the rater dislikes, and to external factors in employees
they do like.
What are three types of task-based rater bias in evaluation of employees?
1. Strictness set-- rating everyone too strictly.
2. Leniency set-- rating everyone too highly
3. Central tendency set-- rating everyone as average.
What are two types of ratee-based errors in evaluation of employees?
1. The halo error (rating whole eval on one attribute-- dress, sports
fannage, etc.)
2. Personal biases-- rating based on whole groups
What do studies find about supervisor biases regarding race?
Some find that people rate their own race better; others find that
both black and white raters give lower performance to black employees.
What do studies find about supervisor biases regarding sex?
Women’s ratings are lower when they are less than 20% of a work group,
but higher when they are more than 50% of the work group.
What do studies find about supervisor biases regarding age?
Older workers are rated lower on interpersonal skills and overall job
performance.
What are four strategies to improve ratings of employee performance?
1. Training raters with the instruments to be used.
2. Using multiple raters
3. Having raters rate on an ongoing basis rather than once or twice a year
4. Basing performance on clear and specific performance standards
obtained through a job analysis.
What does FOR training stand for?
Frame of Reference training
What does FOR training mean?
Raters are provided with clear and
specific criteria for what constitutes the different levels of
performance, with an example at each level. It reduces rater error.
What are three types of training?
1. Non-participative training (trainee is a passive recipient-- e.g.,
watching a video)
2. Individual participative
3. Group participative
What are four types of individual participative training?
1. Programmed instruction (self-instruction through videos, booklets,
computer software, etc). usually used for programs trying to train a
large number of employees at once.
2. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), aka computer-based training
(CBT) A form of programmed instruction in which the instruction is computer based.
3. Simulation training aka vestibule training. (e.g, cockpits for pilots)
4. Job rotation-- requires everyone to do every job. Especially in
Japanese companies.
What does CAI stand for?
Computer-assisted instruction. A form of programmed instruction in which the instruction is
computer based.
What is another name for simulation training?
Vestibule training
What are nine psychological factors affecting how effective training is?
1. Individual dfferences
2. Pre-training experiences
3. Motivation
4. Active vs passive practice
5. Massed vs distributive (spaced) practice (all in one day, or spread out over several sessions?)
6. Whole and part learning (all a once, or in smaller units)
7. Transfer of training (application of training to work setting)
8. Feedback
9. Reinforcement
Can training ovecome differences in ablity?
No-- i actually magnifies them.
What are three ways to increase trainees' motivation?
1. Involving them in decisions about the training program
2. Letting them participate in a needs assessment
3. Giving them a choice of training courses
What factors affect motivaton for training?
One's sense of job involvement and locus of conrol.
Do trainees learn more when they are active or passive in he training process.
Active, obviously. Why the hell am I studying his shit again?
Which is more effective, massed practice or spaced practice?
Spaced practice (where trainng is conduced over several sessions) is more effectve han mass practice (where all trainng is in a shor ime period)
Which is more effective, whole or part learning?
For slow learners, part learning (material presented in small chunks) can be more effective han whole learning (all material presented at once)
What is overlearning?
Developing thorough knowledge of a task to optimize transfer of training (application of training to the work setting).
What are identical elements?
Similarity between training and actual situation to optimize transfer of training (application of training to the work setting).
What are two types of career development theories?
1. Structural ((focus on individual traits and occupational tasks)
2. Developmental (development across the lifespan.)
What are structural career development theories?
Focus on individual traits and occupational tasks
What are developmental career development theories?
Focus on development across the lifespan.
What is Hollands' Personality-Job Fit Theory?
A career development theory which assumes that individuals and job traits can be matched, and close matches will correlate with job success and satisfaction. For a successful career, one must know oneself and the world of work. Classifies six personality types and job types.
What are Hollands six types of personality and work environment?
RIASEC
Realistic
Investigatve
Artistic
Social
Enterprising
Conventional
What are the results of Holland's Self-Directed Search?
Gives a code of up to three letters of RIASEC representing a person's personality (the first letter is the dominant type).
In Holland's Typology, what does Realistic mean?
Requires skill, strength and coordination. E.g. mechanic, drill press operator, farmer.
In Holland's Typology, what does Investigative mean?
Requires thinking, organizing and understanding.
Scientists, journalists, etc.
In Holland's Typology, what does Artistic mean?
Requires creative expression. Painter, musician, writer.
In Holland's Typology, what does Social mean?
Requires helping and developing others. Shrinks, teachers, etc.
In Holland's Typology, what does Enterprising mean?
Requires influencing others and gaining power. Lawyer, CEO, real estate agen.
In Holland's Typology, what does Conventional mean?
Requires rule-regulated, orderly, unambiguous activities. Accountant, file clerk, bank teller.
What shape is used to diagram Holland's typology?
A hexagram, with concepts placed near other concepts which are similar to them.
What are five major concepts of Holland's theory of job type-personality fit?
1. Congruence (degree of match between personality and job-type. Higher is better for longevity at job.)
2. Consistency (how closely related an individual's first two letters are on the hexagon-- the higher the consistency, the more likely the person will exhibit stability in work history)
3. Differentiation (how distinct a profile is-- how strongly the person is identified with one personality type. The more differentiated a person is, the easier it is to predict their behavior.)
4. Environmental identity (whether the individual views this environment as having a clear and stable system of goals and rewards)
5. Vocational identity (how clear and stable an individual's own goals and interests are-- if high, the person will make decisions more easily and with greater confidence.)
What is congruence, related to Holland's theory of job type-personality fit?
Degree of match between personality and job-type. Higher is better for longevity at job.
What is consistency, related to Holland's theory of job type-personality fit?
How closely related an individual's first two letters are on the hexagon-- the higher the consistency, the more likely the person will exhibit stability in work history.
What is differentiation, related to Holland's theory of job type-personality fit?
How distinct a profile is-- how strongly the person is identified with one personality type. The more differentiated a person is, the easier it is to predict their behavior.
What is environmental identity, related to Holland's theory of job type-personality fit?
Whether the individual views this environment as having a clear and stable system of goals and rewards.
What is vocational identity, related to Holland's theory of job type-personality fit?
How clear and stable an individual's own goals and interests are-- if high, the person will make decisions more easily and with greater confidence.
What does Donald Super's theory of the life/career rainbow posit?
Career decision-making involves changes over the course of the lifetime, divided into five stages of career development and eight life roles. Multiple factors influence it, including socioeconomic, individual, opportunities, etc.
What are Super's five stages of career development?
1. Growth (up to age 14)
2. Exploratory (15-24)
3. Establishment (25-44)
4. Maintenance (45-64)
5. Decline/disengagement (65 +)
What is Super's definition of career maturity?
The individual's ability to effectively master the tasks of a given stage in preparation for moving to the next stage.
What five factors does Super believe affect career patterns?
1. Socioeconomic status
2. Abilities
3. Personal characteristics
4. Opportunities
5. Expression of self-concepts
What eight life roles does Super believe are combined to lead to a career choice?
1. son/daughter
2. learner
3.worker
4. spouse/friend
5. homemaker
6. parent/grandparent
7. leisurite
8. citizen
What is Krumbotz's Social Learning Theory?
Developmental; people choose careers based on what they have learned through modeling and reinforcement.
On what four factors does Krumbotz's Social Learning Theory say that career development is based?
1. Social learning
2. Environmental conditions and events
3. Genetic influences
4. Learning experiences (education, I suppose?)
What is Tiedman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development?
Focuses on the processes of differentiation (making distinctions between aspects of oneself and the environment) and integration (unifying those aspects)-- self-awareness leads to better decision-making. Decisions play a crucial role.
What is differentiation, according to Tiedman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development?
Making distinctions between aspects of oneself and of the environment.
What is integration, according to Tiedman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development?
Unifying different aspects of the self and different aspects of the environment in order to make better decisions, set more refined goals, and develop more useful plans.
What is Schein's career anchor theory?
A person's self-concept acts as an anchor-- a stabilizing force-- which determines future occupational decisions. Described eight categories of career anchor.
What are Schein's eight categories of career anchor?
1. Autonomy/independence
2. Security/stability
3. Technical/functional competence
4. General managerial competence
5. Entrepeneurial creativity
6. Service/dedication to a cause
7. Pure challenge
8. Lifestyle
With what three areas are organizational psychology concerned?
1. Leadership
2. Job motivation/satisfaction
3. The organization
What are the eleven categories of theories/approaches of leadership?
1. Scientific management (sees workers as extensions of machines; goal is more efficient productivity)
2. Human relations approach
3. Theory Z (Japanese)
4. Trait theories (leaders have certain attributes)
5. Reward/punishment
6. Situational/contingency theories
7. Transactional (just do the job) vs transformational (INSPIRING!) leaders
8. Power (types thereof)
9. Decision-making models
10. Conflict
11. Negotiation
What is the theory of scientific management?
Workers are extensions of machines; ignore their needs and interest, they are probably lazy, dishonest, and stupid.
Who is associated with the theory of scientific management, and when was it predominant?
Frederick Taylor, an engineer.

The early 20th century.
How were leaders selected under scientific management?
Foremen were promoted from among workers, with little training in leadership. They were bullies, basically. So says PsychPrep, who apparently wouldn't know a nuance if it bit them in the ass.
What is the predominant view on management currently?
The Human Relations view.
When did the human relations view arise, and why?
In the 1920s and 1930s.

The Hawthorne studies found that psychological factors were most effective in increasing production.
What is the Hawthorne effect?
Workers are more productive when they know they are being observed and involved in the process.
What did the Hawthorne studies involve?
Workers were allowed to set the production pace, form social groups, talk on the job, and give their opinions on what environmental factors (illumination, temperature, rest periods) would be most helpful.
What were the two major discoveries of the Hawthorne studies?
1. The Hawthorne effect (people are most productive when being observed and considered)
2. Informal work groups create their own norms, to which they are highly motivated to conform.
How did McGregor describe the scientific management and human relations theories (and when)?
1960.

Scientific management = "Theory X," workers are lazy and must be coerced and directed, as they have no ambition or sense of responsibility.

Human relations = "Theory Y"; People find satisfaction in their work, are industrious and creative, seek challenge and responsibility, do not need control and punishment. The best leadership style is participative.
What is "Theory Z"? What are three factors of it?
An extension of McGregor's supposition:

Theory X= Scientific Management
Theory Y= Human Relations
Theory Z= Japanese management strategies--
1) lifelong employment with emphasis on loyalty
2) slow promotion along non-specialized career paths
3 high levels of group decision-making
Who proposed "Theory Z," and when?
Ouchi, 1981.
Who were the theorists who proposed "Theories X, Y and Z"?
McGregor (1960) proposed Theory X and Theory Y.
Ouchi (1981) proposed Theory Z.
What are trait theories of leadership?
There are certain traits shared by all good leaders which distinguish them from poor leaders, regardless of the situation.
What was the first approach used to study leadership?
Trait theories, which assumed that there are certain traits shared by all good leaders.
How accurate are trait theories of leadership?
After fifty years of research, the results provide limited and inconsistent support.
What seven traits have meta-analyses of trait theories of leadership found correlated with good leadership?
1. Drive
2. Leader motivation (desire to lead rather than just to have power)
3. Honesty/integrity
4. Self-confidence
5. Emotional maturity
6. High cognitive ability
7. Knowledge of company and industry
What are the three types of leaders investigated by trait theories of leadership?
1. Authoritarian
2. Democratic
3. Laissez-faire
What type of leaders have studies of trait theories of leadership found to be correlated with greatest employee satisfaction?
Democratic.
What type of leaders have studies of trait theories of leadership found to be correlated with greatest productivity?
Somewhat mixed with democratic.

But laissez-faire is definitely worse than democratic or authoritarian.
What have reward and punishment theories of leadership found?
Performance-contingent rewards are strongly correlated with both satisfaction and performance; non-performance contingent rewards and punishments are not.
What is the argument of situational theories of leadership?
Effectiveness of leadership is contingent on the situation.
What are five situational/contingency theories of leadership?
1. Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Theory (ease of task x leader's orientation to task or relationship)
2. Cognitive Resource Theory (style of leader x employees' intelligence)
3. Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model (how much leaders let subordinates make decisions)
4. House's Path-Goal Theory (how much leaders can increase specific payoffs for individual workers)
5. Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory (like Vygotsky's scaffolding; leader considers workers' readiness to perform)
What is Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) theory?
A situational theory of leadership, which assesses whether a leader is relationship- or task-oriented, how likely the task is to be accomplished based on the situation, the leader's power, and the relationship between the leader and the subordinates.
In Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Theory, what does LPC stand for, and what does it mean?
Least-Preferred Colleague-- the person the leader likes least.
In Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Theory, what does "high LPC" or "low LPC" mean?
High LPC= leader rates LPC highly, leader is relationship-oriented.

Low LPC= leader rates LPC poorly, leader is task-oriented.
What does Fiedler's Contingency (LPC) Theory predict?
In highly favorable or highly unfavorable situations, a low LPC leader is most effective; in moderately favorable situations, a high LPC leader is most effective.
What is the origin of Cognitive Resource Theory?
Developed by Fiedler and Garcia in 1987 in response to criticism of Fiedler's Contingency Theory.
What does Cognitive Resource Theory examine, based on what four factors?
Whether a directive vs non-directive leadership style will be more effective depending on

1. Cognitive resources (ability) of the employees
2. Stress levels
3. Experience of the leader
4. Group support for the leader
What does Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model (1973) examine?
It is a leadership model focusing on decision-making, and how much subordinates are permitted to participate. Discusses different styles of decision-making, and factors which affect which style works best.
What year did Fiedler propose the Contingency (LPC) Theory?
1967
What year did Vroom and Yetton propose the Normative Model ?
1973
What are the five styles of leadership discussed in Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model (1973)?
1. Autocratic
2. Consultative
3. Group decision-making with the leader
4. Group decision-making without the leader
5. Autocratic with information
In Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model (1973), what three factors affect which style of leadership will be most effective?
1. Importance of the decision
2. The degree to which subordinates accept it
3. Time required to make the decision
What does House's Path-Goal Theory (1971) state?
A leadership theory which recommends that the leader increase personal payoffs for subordinates and make the paths to the payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks.
What year did House propose the Path-Goal Theory?
1971
How does House's Path-Goal theory suggest a leader increase personal payoffs for subordinates?
1. Find out what each employee finds rewarding
2. Assess the employee's strengths and weaknesses
3. Help the employee to achieve his/her goals.
What are the four leadership styles discussed in House's Path-Goal theory?
1. Directive
2. Supportive
3. Achievement oriented
4. Participative
What is Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership theory?
Looks at employees' readiness to perform-- if they are not ready, the leader should tell them what to do; if thy are more ready, they need less task-orientation.
What are the four styles of Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership theory, and to what do they correspond?
They correspond to degrees of employee readiness.

1. Telling
2. Selling
3. Participating
4. Delegating
What is Bernard Bass' theory of transactional and transformational leaders?
Transactional leaders are focused on getting the work done, in a fairly detached way.

Transformational leaders use their charisma, inspiration, and people-skills to broaden and elevate the goals of the subordinates.
In Bass' theory, what is a transactional leader?
Transactional leaders are focused on getting the work done, in a fairly detached, emotionless way. Aim to secure the agreed-upon level of performance from subordinates, may use rewards, MBO, and other conventional means.
In Bass' theory, what is a transformational leader?
Transformational leaders use their charisma, inspiration, and people-skills to broaden and elevate the goals of the subordinates.
What are the five types of power psychologists have proposed involved in the worker's willingness to comply with a leader's request?
1. Reward power
2. Coercive power
3. Legitimate power (position in hierarchy)
4. Referent power (identifying with, liking or admiring the leader)
5. Expert power
What is legitimate power?
A type of power psychologists have proposed involved in the worker's willingness to comply with a leader's request-- related to the person's position in a hierarchy.
What is referent power?
A type of power psychologists have proposed involved in the worker's willingness to comply with a leader's request-- related to identifying with, liking or admiring the leader.
What are two categories of types of power involved in a worker's willingness to comply with a leader's request?
1. Position power (reward, coercive, legitimate)
2. Personal power (referent, expert)
What are three types of position power involved in a worker's willingness to comply with a leader's request?
1. Reward
2. Coercive
3. Legitimate
What are two types of personal power involved in a worker's willingness to comply with a leader's request?
1. Referent
2. Expert
What type of power is the most important reason for an employee complying with a manager's request?
A combination of expert and referent.
What type of manager power is most negatively correlated with satisfaction?
Coercive
What are two common approaches to making a leadership decision?
1. Rational-economic (having a clearly defined problem, knowing all possible options, and choosing the best solution)
2. Administrative (used when problems are ambiguous, only partial knowledge is available, and the first satisfactory alternative is chosen).
Who discussed the "administrative approach" to making a leadership decision?
Herbert Simon
What are two other names for the "administrative approach" to making a leadership decision?
1. Behavioral approach
2. A satisficing style
What are four types of conflict which affect leadership?
1. Intrapersonal
2. Interpersonal
3. Intergroup
4. Interorganization
What are three types of conflict-resolution approaches?
1. lose-lose -- compromise
2. win-lose -- competition or authority
3. win-win -- collaborative and problem-solving situations
What are two types of negotiation?
1. Distributive negotiation (claiming part of the pie)
2. Integrative/principled negotiation (attempting to enlarge the pie)
What is distributive negotiation?
Claiming part of the pie.
What is integrative/principled negotiation?
Attempting to enlarge the pie.
Between what four sets of sides can negotiation be done?
1. Two-party
2. Group
3. Intergroup
4. Among constituencies (e.g., management vs. labor)
What is arbitration?
Negotiation between two parties which involves a third party who acts as a judge and makes the decision after listening to both sides.
What are three types of theories of motivation?
1. Need/content theories
2. Cognitive/process theories
3. Reinforcement model
What are four need theories of motivation?
1. Maslow's hierarchy
2. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (expansion of Maslow, looks at both satisfaction and dissatisfaction)
3. Alderfer's ERG Theory (needs for existence, relatedness and growth)
4. McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (people gain different needs over time)
What does Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory state?
Extends Maslow's work; differentiates between lower-level needs (hygeine factors; pay, working conditions, etc) which produce dissatisfaction when not met, and upper-level needs (motivators, satisfers-- achievement, responsibility, etc) which produce satisfaction when met. Also spoke of job enrichment and job enlargement.
Who proposed the Two-Factor Theory, and when?
1966, Herzberg.
What are "hygiene factors"?
A.k.a. "lower level needs" or "dissatisfiers" in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory-- relate to job context. E.g., pay, working conditions, supervision, etc.
What are "motivators" or "satisfers"?
A.k.a. "upperlevel needs" or in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory-- relate to job content. E.g., achievement, responsibility, and opportunity.
In Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory, what is the difference between lower and upper level needs?
Lower-- deal with job context. If unmet, leads to dissatisfaction.

Upper-- deal with job content. If met, lead to satisfaction.
How does Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (1966) define job enrichment?
Involves expanding jobs to give employees a greater role in planning and performing their work, so increasing satisfaction and performance. Gives workers more autonomy and authority, and encourages them to take on challenging new tasks.
What is another term for "job enrichment" as described in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (1966)?
Vertical loading
What four benefits does Herzberg claim come from "job enrichment," or "vertical loading"?
1. Increased employee satisfaction
2. Increased peformance
3. Decreased turnover
4. Decreased absenteeism
According to Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (1966), what is the difference between "vertical loading" and "horizontal loading"?
"Vertical loading" is job enrichment-- giving employees more authority and autonomy.

"Horizontal loading" is job enlargement-- expanding the variety of tasks an employee performs.
How does Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (1966) define job enhancement?
Expanding the variety of tasks an employee performs without increasing responsibility or autonomy.
What is another term for "job enhancement" as described in Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory (1966)?
Horizontal loading.
What two results does Herzberg claim come from "job enhancement," or "horizontal loading"?
1. Increase in satisfaction
2. A slight affect on performance
What does Alderfer's ERG Theory (1972) state?
A need theory of motivation; it divides needs into three categories: existence, relatedness, and growth. All three needs may exist simultaneously, and frustration of one need leads to movement towards a previously-met need.
What three types of needs are described in Alderfer's ERG Theory (1972)?
1. Existence
2. Relatedness
3. Growth
Which has greater empirical support, Maslow's Need Hierarchy, or Alderfer's ERG Theory?
Alderfer's ERG Theory.
What is the difference between Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG Theory?
Maslow's Need Hierarchy states that when a need lower in the pyramid is met, a person goes on to try to attain a higher-level need.

Alderfer's ERG Theory states that when one need is met and another is frustrated, the person will return to trying to get satisfaction from the previously-met need.
What are three (wildly oversimplified and stereotyped) results of Alderfer's ERG Theory in relation to different groups?
1. African-Americans have greater existence needs.
2. People with more educated parents have higher growth needs.
3. Women have higher relatedness needs and lower existence needs than men.

(... so what about an African-American woman with highly educated parents? PsychPrep, I/O, I hate you.)
What is McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s)?
A needs-based theory of motivation. Derived from the TAT. Describes three needs, for achievement, affiliation, and power. All of these needs are acquired over time, and can be learned.
When was McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory proposed?
1950s.
What are the three needs described in McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s)?
1. nACH-- the need for achievement-- doing better, solving problems.
2. nAFF-- the need for affiliation-- desire to establish and maintain friendly relations.
3. nPOWER--desire to control, influence, and be responsible for others.
What is nACH?
In McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s)--the need for achievement-- doing better, solving problems.
What is nAFF?
In McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s)--the need for affiliation-- desire to establish and maintain friendly relations.
What is nPOWER?
In McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s)--desire to control, influence, and be responsible for others.
In McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s), what need is shown to correlate highly with the success of the company?
nACH-- need for achievement
What are three traits of people with high nACH (need for achievement in In McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory (1950s))?
1. Favoring a work environment where they can assume responsibility for problem-solving
2. Setting moderate, attainable goals
3. Needing recognition and feedback about their progress.
What are three cognitive theories of motivation?
1. General Expectancy Theory (people act based on their belief that rewards will follow, and work for a payoff)
2. Adams' Equity Theory (we act based on whether we think the situation is fair to us)
3. Locke's Goal-Setting Approach (achievable goals lead to high motivation)
What does General Expectancy Theory state?
People behave in ways based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow. Employees act at a level which guarantees the best pay-off. varies by expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
What is another name for General Expectancy Theory?
Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality Expectancy Theory (VIE).
What is another name for Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality Expectancy Theory (VIE)?
General Expectancy Theory
What does VIE stand for?
Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality Expectancy Theory, aka General Expectancy Theory.
According to General Expectancy Theory, what is expectancy?
Expectancy of success on the task.
According to General Expectancy Theory, what is instrumentality?
Expectancy of rewards.
According to General Expectancy Theory, what is valence?
The value the rewards for successfully completing a task have to that employee.
What are the three important factors of General Expectancy Theory?
1. Expectancy (of success)
2. Instrumentality (likelihood of rewards)
3. Valence (value of rewards)
Describe Adams' Equity Theory (1965).
A cognitive theory of motivation. We adjust our performance based on the (un)fairness of our input-to-outcome versus others' inputs-to-outcomes.
When did Adams propose the Equity Theory of cognitive motivation?
1965.
Describe Locke's Goal-Setting Approach (1968).
A cognitive theory of motivation. Manageable goals lead to better results.
What are the five principles of Locke's Goal-Setting Approach (1968)?
1. Goals should be specific
2. Goals should be of intermediate to high level of difficulty.
3. Workers must receive feedback.
4. A sense of self-efficacy will increase performance.
5. Employees must accept the goals.
When did Locke propose the Goal-Setting Approach?
1968
What is the Reinforcement Model of motivation?
People perform actions that have rewarding outcomes, avoid actions that have punishing outcomes, and stop performing actions that have neither rewarding nor punishing outcomes.
How much of job satisfaction is related to genetic factors?
30-40%, says PsychPrep.

????!!!!!!!?????????!!!!!!!!!!??????????
How does pay affect job satisfaction?
In complex ways, explained differently by different theories.
According to Maslow's theory, what needs does pay meet?
Physiological, safety, esteem, depends on the person.
In what three ways would McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory say that pay meets people's needs?
1. nAch-- a source of feedback.
2. nAff-- a source of affiliation if it's a group raise.
3. nPower-- a source of control.
In what two ways would Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory say that pay meets people's needs?
1. Adequate salary meets lower-level needs.
2. Merit pay can meet upper level needs and increase satisfaction.
What five personal characteristics have researchers looked at to see how they affect job satisfaction?
1. Age
2. Gender
3. Race
4. Occupational Level
5. Health
How is job satisfaction affected by age?
Satisfaction increases with age.
How is job satisfaction affected by gender?
No clear pattern has been found.
How is job satisfaction affected by race?
Whites report greater job satisfaction than people of color do, most significantly among managers.
How is job satisfaction affected by occupational level?
The higher the overall occupational level, the higher the job satisfaction.
How is job satisfaction affected by health?
People with poor mental or physical health have greater job dissatisfaction.
How is job satisfaction correlated with productivity?
Weak positive correlation-- .17.
How is job satisfaction correlated with absenteeism/turnover?
Moderate negative correlation-- .4
How is job satisfaction correlated with pay?
Positive correlation, especially fairness of pay.
What factor is most strongly correlated with absenteeism?
Sex-- women have higher levels.
How is absenteeism correlated with company size?
There is less absenteeism in smaller companies.
How is absenteeism correlated with age?
Older workers have more unavoidable absences, but fewer avoidable absences.
What four factors are related to employee turnover?
1. Tenure
2. Pay
3. Opportunity for promotion
4. Routine work
How is tenure related to employee turnover?
Expressed interest to stay is strongly negatively correlated with turnover.
How are pay and opportunity for promotion related to employee turnover?
Negatively correlated with turnover.
How is routine work related to employee turnover?
Results in increased turnover.
How is productivity related to employee turnover?
There is no evidence of a correlation.
What are two overall categories of factors which affect motivation and satisfaction?
1. Personal factors
2. Job-related factors
What is the human factors approach to job design?
Focuses, paradoxically, on physical aspects of the job-- how to maximize speed and minimize wasted human movement. Focuses on how humans and machines work together.
What is the psychological approach to job design?
Assumes that efficiency and effectiveness are correlated with satisfaction, which lets people meet self-actualization needs. Focuses on Herzberg's job enlargement and job enrichment.
What are four common organizational structures?
1. Traditional (hierarchical, traditional bureaucracy)
2. Project (focuses on specific products/services)
3. Team (focuses on work groups)
4. Multidimensional (more than one type of structure)
What is traditional organizational structure?
Hierarchical, traditional bureaucracy
What is project organizational structure?
Focuses on specific products/services. E.g., a hospital may be structured around "product lines," (emergency medicine) rather than discipline (doctors, nurses)
What is team organizational structure?
Work groups/teams, report to upper management.
What is multidimensional organizational structure?
Involves more than one type of structure (e.g., traditional and team)
What is the general trend in organizational structure?
Away from traditional, toward broadly-shared responsibility and authority.
What are the three assumptions of participative organizational style?
1. Human relations (People want to participate, and will accept change more readily if they are allowed to participate in decision-making.)
2. Human resources (People are a valuable resource because they have knowledge and ideas, and their input will make decisions better.)
3. High involvement (People can be trusted to develop knowledge and skills to make important decisions about management and their work.)
What is "human relations" in terms of participative organizational style?
People want to participate, and will accept change more readily if they are allowed to participate in decision-making.
What is "human resources" in terms of participative organizational style?
People are a valuable resource because they have knowledge and ideas, and their input will make decisions better.
What is "high involvement" in terms of participative organizational style?
People can be trusted to develop knowledge and skills to make important decisions about management and their work.
What does QWL stand for?
Quality of Work-Life Programs
What are Quality of Work-Life Programs (QWL)?
They are participative programs which target changes in organizational style in order to improve quality of working life.

Involve teams of workers meeting weekly to discuss problems int ehir areas of responsibility.
What does QCC stand for?
Quality Control Circles
What are Quality Control Circles (QCC)?
Look for specific ways to improve the finished product and levels of production. 7-10 workers from the same department (on a voluntary basis) take responsibility for their work and make decisions regarding it.
What is organizational development?
Focusing on total organizational change and systematic ways to bring about planned change.
What are the five goals of organizational development?
1. Communication
2. Interaction
3. Decision-making
4.Increasing task performance
5. Changing and adapting to change
What are four factors of organizational culture?
1. Beliefs
2. Values
3. Customs
4. Behaviors
What type of organizational culture leads to high performance?
High involvement and high participation
What are the two types of communications networks?
1. Centralized (one person in the middle gets all the information)
2. Decentralized (all members can communicated with each other)
For what are centralized communication networks most useful?
Simple tasks.
What is a strength of centralized communication networks?
Rapid communication.
What are decentralized communication networks most useful for?
Tasks involving problem-solving and communication.
What type of communication network leads to greater satisfaction?
Less centralized. Individuals are most satisfied when they are most central in the network.
What are three types of group tasks in an organization?
1. Additive tasks (Group members' separate performances are added to produce a combined effect.)
2. Disjunctive tasks (Outcome is affected by the performance of the most effective group member.)
3. Conjunctive tasks (The group's performance is limited by the performance of the least effective group member.
What are additive tasks?
Group members' separate performances are added to produce a combined effect.
What are disjunctive tasks?
Outcome is affected by the performance of the most effective group member.

E.g., one person on a team comes up with an outstanding idea.
What are conjunctive tasks?
The group's performance is limited by the performance of the least effective group member.

E.g., one person on a quality-control team sleeps through her shift.
Talk about informal work groups.
They're extremely important in employee motivation and norms. Composed of people with similar personality characteristics.
What is another name for "social loafing," and what is it?
The Ringelmann effect.

People don't work as hard in a group as they do individually.
What is another name for the Ringelmann effect and what is it?
People don't work as hard in a group as they do individually.
What six factors influence the cohesiveness of an informal group within an organization?
1. Group size (larger=less cohesive)
2. Diversity (more diverse=less cohesive)
3. Team rewards (fewer=less cohesive)
4. Outside pressures and threats (fewer=less cohesive)
5. Difficulty to join the group (less= less cohesive)
6. Frequency of interactions (less=less cohesive)
What are the five stages of group development?
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjourning
When do groups make better decisions than individuals?
When the problem has multiple parts susceptible to division of labor.
Which groups make better decisions, heterogenous or homogenous? What is the caveat?
Heterogenous.

But they may have trouble with group cohesion.
What is the ideal group size for decision-making and effectiveness?
5-7 members. An even number of members is best in situations requiring deliberation.
When is brainstorming more useful than open group discussion?
When the goals involve creative thinking.
Is it better to brainstorm alone or in a group?
Alone.
What is risky shift?
The tendency for people in groups to make riskier decisions than they would if they were deciding as individuals.
What is risky shift?
The tendency of people in groups to make riskier decisions than they would as individuals. (e.g., people who have pooled their money to make group investments.)
What is response polarization?
A.k.a. group polarization

The tendency for people in groups to become more extreme in their views (with everyone in the group agreeing).
What is another term for response polarization?
Group polarization
What is group polarization?
A.k.a. response polarization

The tendency for people in groups to become more extreme in their views (with everyone in the group agreeing).
What is groupthink?
When people in highly cohesive groups seek concurrence, consensus and unanimity more than they seek the best possible alternative.
What is a famous historical example of groupthink?
The decision of military commanders to ignore the possibility of a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in WWII.
What are five factors in group decision-making?
1. Group effectiveness (better for complex tasks with multiple parts, better in heterogenous groups, if they can get along)
2. Brainstorming (good for creativity-- not as good in groups as individually)
3. Risky shift (groups take more risks than individuals)
4. Response polarization (groups get more extreme)
5. Groupthink (groups care more about all agreeing than about being right)
What are five important factors in physical working conditions?
1. Temperature & humidity
2. Illumination
3. Noise
4. Color
5. Music
How does temperature & humidity affect productivity and performance?
Higher temperatures and humidity hurts performance.
How does illumination affect productivity and performance? (3 ways)
Inadequate lighting is bad;

Certain kinds of work require bright light.

Older workers require bright light.
How does noise affect productivity and performance? (3 ways)
Very loud noise can damage hearing.

It's harder to adjust to intermittent noise than constant noise.

Perception of ability to control noise may be more important than actual ability to control noise.
How does color affect productivity and performance?
Affects emotion.
How does music affect productivity and performance?
Slight improvement on repetitive, simple jobs.

No evidence of effect on more demanding jobs.
What type of lighting do people prefer?
Several lamps rather than one overhead source, and bright enough.
What emotion do blues and greens cause?
Soothing
What emotion does red cause?
Excitement
What emotion do yellow and orange cause?
Alertness
What emotion does grey cause?
Depression.
What color causes soothing feelings?
Blues and greens (cool colors)
What color causes excitement?
Red
What color causes alertness?
Yellow and orange (warm colors)
What color causes depression?
Grey
What is an important rule about the relationship between schedules and productivity?
The longer the workday/week, the fewer hours are spent actually working. Even for highly motivated workers.
What are compressed work weeks?
For example, four ten-hour days.
What are four positive effects of compressed work weeks?
1. Decreased anxiety
2. Decreased turnover
3. Increased satisfaction
4. Temporary positive effects on productivity
What are two negative effects of compressed work weeks?
1. Fatigue
2. Possible customer complaints due to unavailable personnel.
What percentage of the workforce uses compressed work weeks?
20%
What percentage of the workforce uses flextime?
40%
What is flextime?
A variable work schedule
What are five possible effects of flextime? How certain are they?
1. Decreased lateness
2. Decreased absenteeism
3. Decreased turnover
4. Increased morale
5. Increased productivity

Studies are inconclusive
When are rest breaks most effective?
During the fourth and eighth hour of work.
Are rest breaks helpful?
Why, yes, yes they are. Increase productivity and morale, reduce fatigue and boredom.
What are four problems with the night shift?
1. Increased error
2. Decreased output
3. More health problems
4. More stressful than day shift (ditto afternoon)
What type of shift is most detrimental to health?
Rotating.
What shift is most preferred?
Day.
What regulates workers' health and safety?
OSHA the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
How many work-related accidents occur each year?
six million.
How many work-related deaths occur each year?
10,000 to 14,000
What three factors make safety education and training programs most effective?
1. Practice
2. Feedback
3. Reinforcement
What interventions work the best to reduce occupational accidents?
Safety incentive programs-- reward workers for safe behaviors
What is personnel psychology?
Selecting, placing and training workers
What is the Position Analysis Questionnaire?
A structured job analysis instrument to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that represent in a comprehensive manner the domain of human behavior involved in work activities.
What is social differentiation?
That's a really good question. Amy's notes say "the ability to differentiate behaviors of others." The internet seems to think it has to do with increasing complexity of society over time as people take on different roles, both work and class-wise.
What is the difference between merit ratings and merit rankings?
Merit ratings: Evaluate each person individually

Merit rankings: Evaluate people in comparison with each other
What is the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule? (EPPS)
designed to provide researchers in Career development with a quick and convenient measure of a number of relatively independent personality variables, or needs. It gauges 15 such needs
What is Cohen's Kappa Coefficient?
A method for assessing the degree of agreement between two raters
Describe the Wonderlic Personnel Test
50 items, 12 minutes.

Vocabulary, analogies, proverbs.

High positive correlation with WAIS.
What is the Five Factor Model?
Five broad domains or dimensions of personality which are used to describe human personality.
What are the "big five" personality factors?
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism

OCEAN
Which of the "big five" personality factors is most important for employment?
Conscientiousness
What is a trainability test?
A type of work-sample test to determine whether an interviewee can be taught what she needs to know for a job.
What are three interest inventories?
1. Holland
2. Kinder
3. Strong
What is a bonafide occupational qualification (BFOQ)?
A quality or an attribute that employers are allowed to consider when making decisions on the hiring and retention of employees – qualities that when considered in other contexts would be considered discriminatory and thus violating civil rights employment law.
What does BFOQ stand for?
Bonafide occupational qualification
What is a realistic job preview?
An interviewing technique which involves giving as much information, positive and negative, about the job as possible.
What are three aspects of a training needs assessment?
1. Organizational assessment (to be sure training is what is required to solve the problem)
2. Task analysis (figure out skills required for task)
3. Person analysis (determine whether current employees need training in the skills required for task)
What are hygeine factors?
Herzberg's lower level needs.
What are motivator factors?
Herzberg's upper level needs.
What is boundary permeability?
Taking work home.
What is Super's Career Rainbow?
There are roles in development over both the human lifetime and the career lifetime.
What is theme interference?
Unresolved conflict in life or fantasy interferes in perception or handling of a work-related problem
In Tiedman and O'Hare's theory, what is personal reality and common reality?
Personal reality: What we feel is right for us.
Common reality: What others think is right for us
What are three change strategies?
1. Empirical-rational: People will act in accord with their self-interest.
2. Power-coercive: Rewards and punishment will motivate people to change.
3. Normative-educative: Focus on changing attitudes and values.
What is an empirical-rational change strategy?
People will act in accord with their self-interest.
What is a power-coercive change strategy?
Rewards and punishment will motivate people to change.
What is a normative-educative change strategy?
Focus on changing attitudes and values.
What is the best way of preventing job stress?
Give people more control over their jobs.
What group objects most to a compressed work week?
Generally women, who stereotypically do so much more work on their days off.