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27 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Test Construction
Glossary Alternate Forms of Reliabity 
Mthd 4 estmtng a tst's rliablty tht ntails admnstrng 2 forms of th tsts 2 th sam grp of xamnees nd crrltng th 2 sets of scors. Forms cn b admnstrd at abt the sam tme (coeffcnt of equvlnc) or at dffrnt tms (coeffcnt of equvlnc nd stblty). Cnsdrd by som xprts 2 b th bst (most thoro) mthd 4 assng reliablty.


Test Construction
Glossary Classical Test Theory 
Thry of msmnt tht rgrds obsrvd variblty n tst scors as rflctng two cmponents: tru dffrnc btwn xamnees on th attrbut(s) measrd by th tsts nd th effcts of th msmnt (random) error. Reliablty is a meas of tru scor variblty.


Test Construction
Glossary Coefficient Alpha/KR20 
Mthd 4 assng ntrnl cnsistncy rliablty tht provids an ndx of avrg intritm cnsistncy. KuderRichardson Formula 20 (KR20) cn b usd as a substitue 4 coeffcnt alpha whn tst itms r scored dichotomusly


Test Construction
Glossary Constrct Validity/Convergent & Discrimant 
Tn xtnt 2 wch a tst meas th hypothtcl trait (constrct) it is ntnded 2 meas. Mthds 4 estblshng cnstrct valdty nclud crrltng tst scors w/scors on meas tht do & do nt meas th sam trait (convergent & dscriminant validty); condctng a factr analysis to asess th tst's fctrl valdty; dtrmng if chngs n tst scors rflct xpctd dvlpmntl chngs; nd seeng if xprmntl manipultns hv th xpctd mpct on tst scors.


Test Construction
Glossary Content Validty 
th xtnt 2 wch a tst adqutly sample th doman of nfo, knwldg, or skl tht it purprts 2 meas. dtrmn prmrly by "xprt judgmnt." Most mprtnt 4 achevmnt nd job sampl tst.


Test Construction
Glossary Criterion Contamination 
Rfrs 2 bias ntrducd n2 a prsn's critrion scor as a rslt of th knwldg of th scorer abt scorer's prfrmnc on th prdctr. Tnds 2 artificly nflat th r/s btwn prdctr nd criterion.


Test Construction
Glossary CriterionReferencd Interpretation 
Ntrprtatn of a tst scor n trms of a prespcfd std; i.e., n trms of % of cntnt crrct (%scor) or of predctd prfrmnc on an xtrnl criterion (e.g., regrssn equtn, xpctncy tabl).


Test Construction
Glossary CriterionRelated Valdity / Concurrent & Predictive 
Th typ of valdity tht nvolves dtrmng th r/s (crrltn) btwn th predctr nd th criterion. Th crrltn coeffcnt is rffrd 2 as th criterion rltd valdity coeffcnt. Criterionrltd valdity cn be either cncurrent (predctr nd criterion scors obtained at about the sam time) or predctiv (predctr scors obtnd b4 criterion scors).


Test Construction
Glossary CrossValidation & Shrinkage 
Procss of reassng a tst's criterionrltd validty on a nu smpl 2 chk th gnrlzblty of th orgnl valdty coeffcnt. Ordnrly, th valdty coeffcnt "shrnks" (bcoms smaller: on crssvaldtn b/c th chnc fctrs opertng nn th orinal sample r nt all prsnt n th crssvaldtn sampl,


Test Construction
Glossary Factor Analysis 
A multivariate statstcl tchq usd 2 dtrmn hw mny fctrs (cnstructs) r needed 2 accnt 4 th ntrcrrltns amng a set of tsts, subtsts, or tst itms. Fctr analysis cn b usd to assess a tst's cnstruct validty by ndctng th xtnt 2 wch th tsts crrlts w/fctrs tht wud nd wud nt b xpctd 2 crrlt with. From th prspctv of fctr analys, tru scor variability consists of communality nd spcfcity. Fctrs idntfd n a fctr analys cn b eithr orthgonical or oblique.


Test Construction
Glossary Factor Loadings & Communality 
N factr analys, a fctr lodng is th crrltn btwn th tst (or othr varibl ncluded n th analys) nd a fctr. Th communality 4 th factr analys (i.e., by th identfied fctrs).


Test Construction
Glossary Incremental Validity/True Positives, False Positives, True Negatives, False Negatives 
th xtnt 2 wch a predctr ncrese dcsnmkng accurcy. Calcultd by sbtrcrng th bse rat from th pstv hit rat. trms 2 hv lnkd w/ncrmentl valdity r predctor nd criterion cutoff scores; tru nd fals positvs nd tru nd fals ngtvs. Tru pstvs r thos who scord hi on th prdctr nd th criterion; fals postvs scord hi on th prdctr bt lo on th crterin; tru negtvs scord lo on th predctr nd th criterion; and fals ngtvs scored lo on th prdctr bt hi on th criterion.


Test Construction
Glossary Item Characteristc Curve 
Whn usng itm rspns thry, an itm chrctrstc curv (ICC) is cnstrctd 4 ea itm by plottng th proportn of xamnees n th tryout sampl hu answerd th itm crrctly agnst eithr th totl tst scor, prfrmnc on an xtrnl criterion, or a mthmtclyderived est of a latent ability or trait. Th curv prvids nfo on th r/s btwn an xamnees's lvl on th ablty or trait measrd by th tst nd th probablty tht xamnee wil rspond to th itm corrctly.


Test Construction
Glossary Item Difficulty 
An itm's dffclty is clcultd by dvdng th # of ndvdls hu answrd th itm crrctly by th totl # of ndvdls; rngs n valu frm 0 (vry dffclt itm) to 1.0 (vry ez itm). N gnrl, an itm dffclty ndx of .50 is prfrd b/c it mxmzs dffrntatn btwn ndvdls w/hi nd lo ablty nd hlps nsur a hi rliblty coeffcnt.


Test Construction
Glossary Item Discrimination 
Itm dscrmntn rfrs 2 th xtnxt 2 wch a tst itm dscrmnts (dffrntiats) btwn xamneex hu obtn hi v lo scors on th ntir tst or on xtrnl critrion. Th itm dscrmntn ndx (D) rngs frm 1.0 to +1.0. If all xamnees n th uppr grp nd non n th lwr grp answrd th itm crrctly, D is +1.0; if non of th xamnees n th uppr grp na all of th xamnees n th lwr grp answrd th itm corrctly, D= 1.0.


Test Construction
Glossary KAPPA Statistic 
A crrltn coeffcnt usd 2 asses ntrrtr rliablty.


Test Construction
Glossary MultitraitMultimethod Matrix. 
A systmtc wy 2 orgnz th crrltn coeffcnt obtnd whn assng a measr's cnvrgnt nd dscrmnt vldty (wch n trn, prvids evdnc of cnstrct vldty). Rquirs measrng at least 2 dffrnt traits usng at least 2 dffrnt methds 4 ea trait. Terms 2 hv lnkd w/multitrtmultimthd matrx r monotraitmonomthd, momotraitheteromthd, heterotraitmonomthd, nd hetertraitheteromthd coeffcnts.


Test Construction
Glossary NormReferenced Interpretation 
Ntrprtn of an xamnee's tst prfrmnc rltv 2 th prfrmnc of xamnees n a nrmtv (stndrdztn) sampl. %tile rnks nd std scors (e.g., zscors nd T scors) r typs of nrmrfrncd scors.


Test Construction
Glossary Orthogonical & Oblique Rotation 
N fctr analys, an orthgncl rotatn of th idntfd fctrd prducs uncrrltd fctrs, whl an oblq rotatn produces crrltd fctrs. Rotatn is don 2 smplfy th ntrprtn of th idntfd fctrs.


Test Construction
Glossary Relationship Between Reliabilty & validity 
Rliablty is a ncssry bt nt sffcnt cndtn 4 vldty. N trms of critrionrltd vldty, thvldty coeffcnt cn b no grtr th th squr root of th product of th rliblties of th predictr nd critrion.


Test Construction
Glossary Relevance 
N tst cnstrctn, rlvnc rfrs 2 th xtnt 2 wch tst itms cntrbut 2 achevng th statd gols of tstng.


Test Construction
Glossary Reliability/Reliability Coefficient 
Rliblty rfrs 2 th cnsistncy of tst scors; i.e., th xtnt 2 wch a tst measrs an attrbut w/o bng affctd by rndm flctuatns (memnt error) tht produces ncnsistncies ovr tme, acrss tme, or dffrnt forms. Mthds 4 estblshng rliblty nclud tstrtst, altrntv forms, slithlf, coeffcnt alpha, nd ntrrtr. Most produc a rliblty coeffcnt, wch is ntrprtd dirctly as a meass of tru scor varblty  e.g., a rliblth of .80 ndicats tht 80% of varblty n tst scors is tru scor varblty.


Test Construction
Glossary SplitHalf Reliability / SpearmanBrown Formula 
Splthlf rliblty is a mthd 4 assng ntrnl cnsistncy rliblty nd nvolvs "slttng" th tst n hlf (e.g., odd vrs evn#d itms) nd crrltng xamnee's scors on th two hlvs of th tst. Th splthlf rliblty coeffcnt is usuly crrctd w/th SpearmanBrown frmula, wch estmts wht th tst's rliblty wud b if it wer bsed on th full lngth of th tst.


Test Construction
Glossary Standard Error of Estimate / Confidence Interval 
An ndx of eror whn prdictng critrion scors from prdictr scors. Usd 2 cnstrct a cnfdnc ntrvl arnd an xamnee's prdictd critrion scor. Its mgntud dpnds on two fcts: th critrion's std dvtn nd th prdctr's vldty coeffcnt.


Test Construction
Glossary Standard Error of Measurement / Confidence Interval 
An ndx of msmnt eror. Usd 2 cnstrct a cnfdnc ntrvl arnd an xamnee's obtnd tst scor. Ts mgntud dpnds on two fctrs: th tst's std dvtn nd rliblty coeffcnt.


Test Construction
Glossary Test Length/Range of Scores 
A tst's rliblty cn b ncresd n svrl wys. One wy is 2 ncres th tst lngth by adng itms of simlr cntnt nd qlty. Anthr is 2 ncres th heterognty of th sampl n trms of th attrbut(s) measrd by th tst, wch wil ncres th rng of scors.


Test Construction
Glossary TestRetest Reliabilty 
A mthd 4 assng rliblty tht nvolvs admnstrng th sam tst 2 th sam grp of xamnees on two dffrnt occsns nd crrltng th two sets of scors. Ylds a coeffcnt of stbilty
