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52 Cards in this Set

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Social Psychology
Glossary
Actor-Observer Effect
In causal attribution, tendency for observer to oversetimate effects of dispositional factors when making attribution about actor's behavior but to overestimate effects of situational factors when making self-attributions.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Attitude Inoculations
Method of reducing effectiveness of persuasive message based on medical model; involves giving recipient of message arguments against own position and weak counterargument (refutations agoinst those arguments). Inoculation found particularly effective for reducing persuasibilty.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Attribution (Dimensions)
Causal attributions often described in terms of 3 dimensions: internal/external (dispositional/situational); stable/unstable; and specific/global.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Autokinetic Effect
Sherif used the autokinetic effect (appearance that a staionary point of light is moving) to study conformity to group norms.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Bases of Social Power
Methods used to induce compliance in another person. French and Raven identified 6 bases of social power: coercive, reward, expert, legitimate, referent, and informational.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Bystander Apathy
Tendency of people to not intervene in emergency situations when others are present. Bystander apathy attributed to 3 factors: social comparison, evaluation of apprehension, and diffuse or responsibility.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Cathersis Hypothesis
Predicts that act of aggression reduces indv.'s arousal level which then decreases likelihood of acting aggressively again in near future. Research not supportive of this claim.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Central Traits
Characteristics that have greater impact than others on impression formation.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Characteristics of Communication
Several characteristics of communicator affect its persuasiveness- e.g., level of discrepancy btwn two positions of the recipient and the message, the order in which two sides of argument presented (primacy/recency effects), and whether the message is intentionally delivered or is overheard.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Characteristics of Communicator
research on attitude change confirmed that credible communicators more persauasive. One factor that contributes to credibility is trustworthiness.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
festinger's theory of attitude change proposes that inconsistencies in cognitions produce discomfort (dissonance), which motivates indv. to reduce dissonance by changing cognitions.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Contact Hypothesis
Proposes that prejudice may be reduced through contact btwn members of majority and minority groups as long as following conditions are met: members of different groups have equal status and power and provided w/opportunities that disconfirm their negative stereotypes about members of other groups.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Deindividuation Model
State of nrelative anonymity that allows indv to feel unidentifiable. Deindividuation associated w/increases in antisocial behaviors, b/c deindividuated person's behavior no longer controlled by guilt, fear of evaluation, or other inhibitory factors.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Effects of Crowding
Crowded conditions tend to enhance positive experiences and increase unpleasantness of negative experiences. Males seem to be more stressed by crowded conditions and more likely to react w/increased aggression; apparently b/c males require more personal space.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Effects of Media Violence
Controversy about effects of media violence fueled by research on observational (social) learning. Although evidence to support each side - violence either increases or decreases violence - found in literature, in general, media violence does not seem to have a cathartic effect, but instead, increases viewer aggressiveness.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Effects of Porno
Research assessing exposure to violent porno generally found that it not onle increases aggressuve behavior but also promotes greater acceptance of violence against women.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Elaboration Likelihood Model
ELM: a cognitive theory of attitude change that distinguished btwn two informational processing routes - central and peripheral. Relaince on central route requires greater mental effort and produces loner-lasting attitude change.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Emotion-In-Relationship Model
A model of emotion in relationships that proposes there is an innate mechanism that generates emotion in response to unexpected events that disrupts ongoing sequences of behaviors.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Equity Theory
Theory of motivation that predicts that motivation (e.g., motivation to remain in a relationship) affected b comparison of input/output ratios.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Field Theory
Lewin's theory of huan behavior that dewscribes it as a product of interdependent factors in the person and his/her physical or social environment.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Fundamental Attribution Bias
Attribution error in which observer tends to overestimate dispositional causes and underestimate situational causes when making attributions about an actor's behavior.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
Theory that aggression is always motivated by frustration. Revised version predicts that frustration leads to aggression in the presence of aggressive cues.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Gain-Loss Effect
Predicts that liking related to pattern rather than amt. of rewards - specifically, people tend to be attracted most to indv who show increasing liking for them and to be least attracted to indv who show decreasing liking for them.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Gender Differences in Affiliation
Research shows females spend more time engaged in conversation, are more likely to talk to people of same sex, and may affiliate more than males do in public places.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Heterosexism & Sexual Prejudice
Herek defines HETEROSEXISM as "an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes among nonheterosexual forms of behavior, identity, relationships, or community;" and SEXUAL PREJUDICE as "negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether target is homosexual, bisexual or heterosexual."
Social Psychology
Glossary
Illusory Correlation
Refers to tendency to see relationship btwn variables not actually related.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Jigsaw Method
Method of learning in which assignments must be completed byteams w/each team member being assigned a different peice of the project; also improves academic achievement, especially for members of minority groups.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Learned Helplessness
Learned expectation that one cannot control negative life events, which leads to apathy and depression; associated w/internal, stable and global attributions.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Minority Influence
Research shows that minority can influence majority by maintaining consisyent (but not dogmatic) position.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Misery Loves Miserable Company
Schacyer's conclusion that people like to affiliate w/those in similar circumstances (i.e., miserable people tend to prefer to affiliate with other miserable people).
Social Psychology
Glossary
Motivational Conflicts
Lewin distinguished btwn 3 motivayional conflicts - approach/approach; avoidance/avoidance; and approach/avoidance. Letter involves goal that has both positive and negative aspects and particularly difficult to resolve.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Obediance to Authority (Milgram)
Controversial research that evaluated participants;\' willingness to obey high-status indv even when doing so seemed to harm another person.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Overjustification Hypthesis
Notion that, when people are externally rewarded for a task they previously found intrinsically interesting, their intrinsic interest in task decreases.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Prison Study (Zimbardo)
Prison simulation study which demonstrated that people alter their behaviors to fit their assigned roles.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Pseudopatient Study (Rosenhan)
Research demostrated that roles of social context and labeling on impression formation. Once admitted to mental hospital, pseudopatients were viewed, esp. by staff, as mental pts even though they no longer exhibited any abnormal behaviors.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Psychological Reactance
Tendency to resist being influenced or manipulated by others, usually done by doing the opposite of what is desired or expected.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Robber's Cave Studies (Sherif)
Research at boy's camp that demonstrated that the most effective way to reduce intergroup hostilities is having members of the groups cooperate to achieve a mutual goal.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Schachter & Singer's Epinephrine Studies
Research on perception of emotion that showed that there are physiological differences btwn emotions and that perceptions of emotion depends on combination of physiological arousal and cognitive label for that arousal.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Schemata (Schemas)
Cognitive structures that organize past info and experience and provide framework for processing and understanding new info and experience.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Self-Monitoring
S\Refers to need for and ability to manage impression that others form of us. High self-monitors most concerned w/"public self" and thus strive to match attitudes and behaviors to situation; Low elf=monitors guided by own beliefs and values and attempt to alter situations to match "private self."
Social Psychology
Glossary
Self-Perception Theory
individuals make attributions abiut their own attitudes and behaviors on basis of observation of their behaviors and other external cues.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Self-serving Bias
In causal attributions, tendency to attribute one's successes to internal factors and failures to external factors.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Self-Verification Theory
predicts that people prefer accurate info (ifo consistent w/one's self-eval).
Social Psychology
Glossary
Social Comparison Theory
individuals use other (usually similar) people as sources of comparison to eval own attitudes and behaviors.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Social Exchange Theory
interpersonal relationships that focuses on magnitude of costs and rewards.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Social learning Theory
Type of learning that occurs simply as the result of observing the behavior of a model; used to explain the acquisition of aggressive behaviors.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Social judgment Theory
Theory of attitude change that predicts that we have 3 "categories of judgment" by which we eval. persuasive messages - latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment, and latitude of rejection - and that we most likely persuaded when message is within latitude of acceptance.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Superordinate Goals
Goals that can be achieved only when indv or members of diff. group work together cooperatively; found useful for reducing intergroup conflict.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Smybolic (Modern) Racism
Theory about current, less blatant forms of racism that reflect combination of anti-African-American attitudes, strong support for traditional American values, (work ethic) and belief that African americans violate those values.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Theory of Planned Behavior
Predicts that attitudes are accurate predictors when attitude measure assesses all 3 components of behavioral intention - person's attitude toward engaging in the behavior, what person believes other people think should be done, and person's perceived behavioral control.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Threat of Retaliation
Often reduces aggressiveness, esp. when it comes from person w/high status or power.
Social Psychology
Glossary
Zeigarnik Effect
tendency to remember interrupted and unfinished taske better than completed ones.