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51 Cards in this Set

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Lifespan Development
Glossary

Aging & Visual Changes
after age 65, most indv epr visual changes that interfere w/reading, driving, and other aspects of daily life. Ghanges incl. PRESBYOPIA (loss of near vision), loss of visual acuity, reduced perception of depth and color, increased light sensitivity, and defects in visual search, dynamic vision (perceiving details of moving objects), and speed in processing what seen.
Lifespan Development
Glossary

Assimilation & Accommodation
According to Piaget cog. dev. occurs when state of disequalibrium brought on by discrpancy between person's current understanding of the world and reality is resolved thru adaptation, which entails two complemenatry processes: Assimilatio - the incorporation of new knowledge into exisiting cognitive schemas (structures); and Accommodation - the modification of existing schema to incorporate new knowledge.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Adolescent Egocentrism (Elkind)
appears at beginning of formal operational stage. As defined by Elkind, its characteristics include the personal fable and the imaginary audience.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Adult Attchment Interview (AAI)
Research using the AAI confirms a r/s btwn parents' own attachment experiences and the attachment patterns of their children. E.G., children of adults classified as dismissing on the AAI often exhibit avoidant attachment patterns in the Strange Situation.
Lifespan Development
Glossary

Auditory Localization
Some auditory localization (the ability to orient toward the direction of a sound) evident shortly after birth, seems to disappear btwn 2-4 mos, then reappear and improves during rest of first year.
Lifespan Development
Glossary

Behavioral Inhibition
Kagan (1989) found evidence of biological contribution and stability for temperment trait known as behavioral inhibition. Study demonstrated that children identified as either inhibited or uninhibited at 21 mos can be similarly categorized at 5 1/2 and 7 1/2 yrs and that level of inhibition related to physiological response.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Bilingualism & Bilingual Education
Bilingualism linked w/several benefits incl. greater cog. flexibility and nonverbal skills. When lang.-minority children participate in high qlty bilingual programs, they do well as or better than peers who participate in all-English programs in terms of academic English and knowledge of subject matter
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Birth Defects- Alcohol, cocaine, malnutrition, anoxia
causes of birth defects incl. genetic factors, exposure to tertogens, poor mental health, and complications during birt process. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in infant; cocaine use during pregnancy increases risk for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth; malnutrition during prenatal development associated w/miscarriage, stillbirth, and low birthweight, mental retardation, and other serious probs; severe malnutrition in 3rd trimester (esp protein deficiency) particularly detrimental for developing brain. During birth process, prolonged anoxia (oxygen shortage) can be caused by several factors incl. twisted umbilical cord, or sedatives given to mother; potential consequences incl. delayed motor and cog. dev., mental retardation, and in severe cases, cerebral palsy.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Brain Development
Cerebral Cortex
largely undeveloped at birth but shows dramatic growth during 1st two yrs of life and result of increase in size of existing neurons, more extensive dendritic branching, and increasing myelinization. frontal lobes continue to mature into adol. and early 20s.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Bronfenbrenner's
Ecological Model
distinguished btwn 4 levels of envr. influence on dev. - microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Child Sexual Abuse
Outcomes of child sexual abuse for male and female victims found no consisten gender differences; but when differences found, outcomes are worse for females. Research also found effects tend to be less severe ic commited by stranger than family member or familiar person.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Coercive Family Interaction Model - Patterson
proposes children initially learn aggressive beh from parents who rarely reinforce prosocial beh., use harsh discipline, and reward aggression with approval and attention; and over time, aggressive parent-child interactions escalate. Parent intervention developed designed to stop coercive cycle by teaching parents child mgmt skills and providing therapy to cope more effectively w/stress.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Compensatory Preschool Programs
Head Start and other CPP found initial IQ test score gains not often maintained, and children attending these programs tend to obtain highr scores on achievement tests, have better attitudes toward school, and less likely to be retained in a grade, be placed in spec ed classes, and to drop out of high school.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Contact Comfort
Research by Harlow w/rhesus monkeys indicated a baby's attachment to mother due, in part, to contact comfort, or pleasant tactile sensation provided by soft cudly parent.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Critical v. Sensitive Period
critical period - timean organism is especially susceptible to positive and negative environmental influences. Sensitive period - more flexible and not limited to specific chronological age. Some aspects of human dev may depend on critical period, but for many humans characteristics and beh, sensitive period probably more applicable.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Early Reflexes
Refelxes are unlearned responses to particular stimuli in the environment. early reflexes in clude Babinski reflex (toes fan out and upward when soles of feet tickled) and Moro reflex (fling arms and legs outward and then toward the body in response to loud noise or sudden loss of ohysical support).
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Effectsof Divorce on Children (Sleeper Effect, Conflict Btwn Parents
Effects of divorce moderated by several factors incl. child's age and gender and custody arrangements. Preschool children exhibit most probs immediately after divorce, but long-tern conseq. may be worse for children in elementary school at time of divorce. Boys exhibit more probs initially but a "sleeper effect" for girls may develop symptoms durin adol. Overall, children do best when they reside w/same-sex parent. Neg conseq. reduced when conflict btwn parents is minimal.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Effects of Increasing Age on Memory
Several aspects of memory show age-related declines, especially recemt long-term (secondary) memory. deficits in secondary memory believed primarily the result of reduced spontaneous use of encoding strategies.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Effects of Maternal Employment
Research found it to be assoc. w/greater personal satisfaction (esp. if she wants to) and, interms of children, with fewer sex-role stereotypes and greater independence. For lower SES boys, maternal empl. assoc w/better perfor. on meas. of cog.dev.; for upper SES boys, may lower scores on IQ and achievement.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erikson's theory of personality dev proposes indv face different social crises at differentpoint thru out lifespan: trust v mistrust, autonomy v shame and doubt, initiative v. guilt; industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, integrity v. despair.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Exposure to alcohol during prenatal dev may produce variety of physical, behavioral, and cognitve symptoms depending on amt. during pregnacy. Sx of FAS largely irreversible and incl. facial deformities,, hyperactivity, and mental retardation.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Freud's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Freud's theory of personality development proposes development involves 5 invarial stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital; during which the libido shifts from one area of the body to another.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Gay & Lesbian Parents
Research suggests nature of parent-child r/s more important than parent's sexual orientation: Overall children similar to hetero parents in terms of social relations, psychological adj., gender identity dev,. and sexual orientation.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Gender Role Development
According to Kholberg's (1966) Cog. Dev theory poses gender-role dev involves sequence of stages that parallels cog. dev: by age 2-3, children acquire a GENDER IDENTITY and recognize they are either male or female; soon after, they realize gender identity is stable over time - GENDER STABILITY - and that bosy grow to men and girls to women; by age 7-8, they understand gender is constant over situations and know people cannot change gender superficially altering external appearance or behavior - GENDER CONSTANCY.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Genotype v Phenotype
Genotype refers to person's genetic make-up; phenotype refers to observable characteristics, which are due to combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Goodness-of-Fit Model
(Thomas & Chess)
Behavioral and adjustment outcomes best for children when parents' caregiving behaviors match child's temperment.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Heteronomous v. Autonomous
Morality
Piaget distinguished bwtn two stages of moral dev. Heteronomous morality (morality of constraints) extends from age7 thru 10 during which children belkieve rules set by authority figures and unalterable (when judging whther an act is right or wrong, they consider whether rule was violated and what the consequence are). beginning at age 11, children enter Autonomous stage (morality of cooperation) during which they view rules as being arbitrary and alterable when the people governed by them agree to change them (when judging an act, they focus more on intention of actor than on act's consequences).
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Identity Statuses (Marcia)
proposes that achievement of identity (including values, beliefs, and goals) involve 4 stages that take place primarily during adol. an young adulthood - i.e., diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Imprinting
Ethological research found that critical period fro imprinting in geese is during first 2-3 days after birth. Bowlby appled notion of critical period to human attachment and proposed exposure of infant to mother during this period results in bond btwn them.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Kholber's Levels Of Moral Development
Moral development coincides w/changes in logical reasoning and social perspective-taking and involves three level that ea incl. two stages: preconventional (punishment and obedience; instrumental and hedonism); conventional (good boy/good girl; law and order); and postconventional (morality of contract, indv. rights, and democratically-accepted laws; morality of indv. principles of conscious).
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Maternal Depression
Children of depressed mothers at higher risk for emotional and beh. probs, tho exact nature and severity of probs depends on several factors incl. genetic predisposition and qlty of early mother-child interactions.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Memory strategies of Children
Preshoolers sometimes use non-deliberate memory strategies ("incidental mnemonics') but do so in an effective way, and children in early elementary school use somewhat more effective techniques but often distracted by irrelevant information. When taught rehersal or other memory strategies, young children may apply them to immediate situation but do not subsequently use them in new situations. By age 9-10, children begin to regularly use rehersal, elaboration, and organization, and in adolescence, these strategies are "fine-tuned" and used more deliberately and selectively.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Montessori Method
an approach to education that emphasizes child-centered, experimental learning and sense discrimination (i.e., learning thru seeing, hearing, smelling, and touching).
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Nativist Approach to Language Acquisition (Chomsky)
stresses role of biological mechanisms (e.g., Chomsky's language acquisition device - LAD) and universal patterns of development.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Parenting Style (Baumrind)
distinguishes btwn 4 styles that reflect various combinations of responsivity and demandingness: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and rejecting-neglecting. High prenatal responsivity mixed w/moderate control (authoritative style) associated with best outcomes incl. greater self-confidence and self-relaince, achievement-orientation, and social responsibility.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Patterns of Attachment (Ainsworth)
research using Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" reveals four patterns of attachment" secure, insecure/ambivalent, insecure/avoidant, and disorganized/disoriented. Eack associated w/different caregiver behaviors and different personality and behavior outcomes.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Down Syndrome
PKU - a d/o caused by pair of recessive genes that cause mental retardation unless infant placed on special diet very soon after birth. Down Syndrome caused by extra number 21 chromosome; characterized by mental retardation, retarded physical growth and motor development, distinctive physical characteristics, and increased susceptibility to Alzheimers's dementia, leukemia, and heart defects.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Phonemes v. Morphemes
Phonemes are smallest units of sound that are understood in a language. English language has 45 phonemes - e.g., b, p, f, v, and th. Morphemes (e.g., "un" and "ing" are smalles units of sound that convey meaning. Morphemes made up of one or more phonemes.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Physical Maturation in Adolescence
Research comparing effects of early versus late physical maturation on adol. found that early maturation has a number of benefits for boys but may have negative conseq. for girls.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Proposes knowledge actively constructed by indv from elements provided by maturation and experience and involves 4 universal and invariant stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Object permanence, an accomplishment of sensorimotor stage involves ability to recognize that peole, objects, etc still exist even when not detectable. magical thinking or belief that thinking about something will actually cause it to occur is a characteristic of preoperational stage along w/centration, which is the tendency to focus on most noticeable features of objects. The ability to conserve (conservation) develops during concrete operational stage and due to emergence of decntration and reveribility.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Rejected v. Neglected Children
distinction made btwn rejected and neglected children. Overall outcome worse for children actively rejected by peers. Rejected children express greater loneliness and peer dissatisfaction and less likely to experience an improvement in peer status when they change social groups.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Relational Crisis (Gilligan)
proposes that in early adol., girls experience relational crisis due to oressures to conform to cultural stereotypes ofemininity. as areult, they become disconnected from themselves (e.g., experience "loss of voice").
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Resilience (Werner & Smith(
Longitudinal research suggests exposure to early (prenatal and perinatal) stress may be ameliorated when baby experiences fewer stresses following birth, exhibits good communication skills and social responsiveness, and receives stable support from a parent or other caregiver.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Rutter's Indicators
Rutters argues the greater the number of risk factors a baby exposed to, the greater the risk for negative outcomes. In one study, he found that psychiatric rsik for children increased from 2% for those w/one risk or no risk to 21% for those w/four or more risks. Concludes the following six family risk factors particularly accurate predictors of child psychopathology: severe marital dsicord, low SES, overcrowding or large family size, parental criminality, maternal psychopathology, and placement of a child outside of home.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Effect
research on teacher expectations suggests that they have a "self-fulfilling prophecy effect" on the academic performance, motivation, and self-esteem of students.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Signs of Attachment
Obvious signs of attachment to a primary caregiver usually not apparent until age 6 mos. These incl. social referencing, separation anxiety, and stranger anxiety.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Social Cognitive Factors & Aggression
agressive children differ from less aggressive peers in terms of two beliefs: a) self-efficacy beliefs (more likely to say that it is easy to perform aggressive acts but difficult to inhibit aggressive impulses) and b) beliefs about the outcomes of behaviors (expect aggression followed by positive conseq. including reduced avversive treatment by others). aggression linked to tendency to misinterpret positive or ambiguous acts of others as intentionally hostile.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Stages of Langauge Acquisition
lang. dev occurs in predictable sequence of stages. Infants initially produce three distnct patterns of crying: basic (hunger) cry, an angry cry, and pain cry. Cooing and babbling (6-8 wks and 4 mos respectively) ; echolalia and expressive jargon (9 month); holophrasic speech (1-2 yrs); telegraphic speech (18-24 mos); and grammatically correct speech (beginning at 2 1/2 yrs.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Stepparents
Girls, especially those in middle school years, seem to have more troub than boys in accepting a stepfather, while addition of stepfather may have benefits for preadol. boys. Over time, these boys often dev close r/s w/stepfathers and become fairly indistinguishable from boys in non divorced families in terms of beh probs. Best general conclusion about stepfathers is that they are less authoritative and more disengaged than bio fathers.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Teacher Feedback
Research indicates teachers tend to responsd differently to boys and girls. Boys corrected more, criticized, praised and helped more by teachers. Nature of feedback gender-related: e.g., boys ofetn citicized for sloppiness and inattention, girls for inadequate intellectual performance.
Lifespan Development
Glossary
Vygotsky's Sociaocultural Theory
proposes that cog. dev always first interpersonal (when child interacts w/adult or other teacher) and then intrapersonal (when child internalizes what was learned). ZONE of PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT - basic concept in theory - cognitive dev fostered when instruction targets zone of proximal dev which is defined by what child can currently do alone and what can be accomplished with assistance from parent, teacher, or more experienced person