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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Divorce
50% of marriages end in divorce. Traditional reasons: nonsupport, abuse, alcoholism, etc.; Currently, like to separate b/c of communication problems, lack of fulfillment, or incompatibility.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Divorce - Effects on
parents & parenting
After divorce, parents expr. emotional distress and changes in funct. that incl. diminished capacity to parent: mothers with phys. custody, freq. socially isolate and lonely and expr. decline in $; tends to be uncommunicative, impatient, and less warm and loving to children (esp.sons), and monitors children's activities less closely and less consistent but more authoritarian regard punishment. Custodial fathers have similar probs., though may adj to situation sooner; non cust. fathers oftern overly permissive and indulgent w/children during visits but after 1st few mos., visits often decline and many stop chil support pymts.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Divorce - Effects on
children
usually most profound during 1st yr; commonbeh. chng incl. increased aggressiveness, noncompliance, and other acting out beh.; disruption in peer and othr interpersonal r/s; and academic diff.; conseq. also related to age: preschoolers initially exhibit more probs than oldre chidre likely b/c less able to understand reasons for div. and likely to blame selves and fear of abandonement by bth parents. Lng-trm conseq. may be worse for older children; if age 6-8 at divorce, may exhibit painful memories 10 yrs ltr and fear may be unsuccessful in marriage.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Divorce - Effects on
children - gender
Some show boys more adversely affectedand recover more slowly; others suggest boys may show greater distress initially but lng-trm conseq. are similar boys and girls so that by adol. similar in terms of severity of outcomes; similarity of both may be due to "sleeper effect" in which girls who don't initially show negative effects develop # of probs in adol. incl. increased noncompl. and conflict w/ mothers, antisocial beh, decreased slf-estm, and diff related to sexual beh,; as yng. adults, girls at hi rsk 4 bng preg. b4 marr., choosing a psyc. unstble and economically insecure husb, and getting divr.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Divorce - Effects on
children - custody arrang.
Sevrl invetigat. rpt children who liv w/same-sx prnt do btr, e.g., have hi self-estm, lwr anxiety and depr., and lwr levs of antisoc. beh.; adol boys and girls living w/father hd poorer adj and sch. grds due in prt to residential father's lack of monitoring teen's activities. Regardless of custody arrang, adj outcomes btr when children hv freq, reliable contact w/noncustodial prnt. Studies also show shared cust. doesn't imprv outcomes when divr is amicable and may worsen outcomes if divr highly conflictual.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Divorce - Effects on
children
boys w/serious probs exhibited similar difficulties b4 divr, b/c parent's marr. was already troubled; finding consistent w/studies showing nt mch diff btwn divr. prnts and unhappy marr. prnts. Conflictual intact families more detrimental than sngl prnt or step prnt familiey. Lack of conflict more import. for child adj thn freq. of contact w/noncustodial prnt. Conclusion: CONFLICT BETWEEN PARENTS (rather thn divr) creates rsk 4 children.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Stepfamilies
75% of divr mthrs & 80% of divr fthrs remarry, usuly w/in 5 yrs. Conseq. of remarr. similar 2 those fllwng divr but recov period oft lngr, esp 4 oldr childr and adol. Grls esp thos in mid sch yrs hv mre troub thn bys accptg stpfthr while additn of stpfthr may hv benefits 4 preadol. bys. Ovr tme thes bys oft dev cls r/s w/stpfthr and become faily indishtng from bys in nondivr. fams. in trms of beh. probs.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Stepfamilies
Stepparents
Oft exprs cncrns abt abil 2 displ and provi affctn 2 stpchldrn, and chldrn cnfrm tht stpprnts ls involvd w/thm thn bio prnts. Bst gen concl drawn abt stpfthrs is thy r ls authoritative and mre dsngagd thn bio fthrs. but may declin ovr tm 4 stpsons. and incr 4 stpdhtrs. Fam conflicts greatest whn stpfthr actvly invol. in prntng, esp drng 1st few yrs fllwng marr. Stpchldr (esp stpsons) mre likly 2 accpt stpfther whn focus mre on est. r/s (vs cntrl). Stpmthrs r mre involv. w/stpchldrn n trms of activities, emotion supprt and discpl.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Maternal Employment
60% 0f women w/ preshol-agd chldrn and 50% of wmn w/chldrn undr age of 1 (fastest growing group) are employed. Benefits outweigh costs. Chldrn hv more egalitarian gender-role concepts and more positive views of femininity a nd aughters w/high levels of self-esteem, independence, and achievement motivation and higher career goals. Some studies suggest in low SES families, sons of wrkng mthrs obtain higher scores on meas. of cog.dev. but in highr SES fams, lowe score on achievemnt and IQ tests. Also evidence that matern. emply has neg outcome 4 boys (e.g., lwr schol achievement, mre beh probs and incr mother-child conflict) when it is combined w/low levels of supervision and monitoring. Less likely to have neg impact on chldrn if both parents hv positive attitude to it.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Maternal Employment
Empl women mre gen. satisfied w/lives, tho may be tru only 4 empl women who want 2 wrk outside home. Some evidence that pers and marital satisfact lwr amg men w/ trad sx-rol stereotyps but ovral, no consistent r/s btwn mtrnl empl and fthrs sense of wel-bng or marital stisfact of either prtnr. Wrkng mthrs resp 4 maj. of chldcre and hshld tsks bt sev studs indicate men in dual-earner cpls assum smwht mre resp 4 hshld chrs thn in pst.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Daycare
Quality daycre ds nt hv detrimental impct and my hv benefits 4 chldrn cog. and soc. dev. Dldrn attending hi qlty dycre cntr tend 2 do btr n trms IQ scrs, creative ply, and lang. skils. effects may b temp. Pos effects may be related 2 characteristicsof child: hirsk infants, fr exmpl, expr fstr intel grwth if attend qlty dycre cntr. For soc dev, beg. dycre drng 1st yr predicitve of hvng mre frnds, bng mre affctionat w/frnds, bng mre assrt in prschl. Also assoc w/hi lvls of disobey, demndgns, and aggress 2 othr chldrn. Pssblty of insecure attach if extensive dycre (mre thn 20 hrs wkly) drng 1st yr but less lkly if strng attch est. b4 and receive hi qlty care.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Gay & Lesbian Parents
Nature of parent-child r/s mre imprt. thn sex. orient: ovral, chldrn similar to hetero prnts n trms of soc rel, psych adj, gend ID dev, and sex orient. Parenting skills do not differ in any consistent way.
Lifespan Development
Family Factors
Child Abuse
Has physical, emotional, social, and intellectual consequences. Physical abuse often cause delays in cog. dev and poor school achievemnt, have fewer friends, and more problems in r/s w/teachers and other adults and often exhibit agrressiveness and other beh probs. Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse victims - no clear consensus. Outcomes tend to be worse for females; two studies suggest effects tend to be less severe when abuse commited by stranger rather than family member or other family person. Characteristics of abusive parents and abused children vary but some generalizations: many abusive aorents abused as children; may have low tolerance for normal infant behavior, are ignorant about normal child dev. and misinterpret children's behavior in negative ways; rely on harsh physical punishment and coercion to control behaviors. Risk for abuse increased when family experiencing stress due e.g., marital discord, social isolation, or chronic poverty. Characteristics of child assoc. w/hi risk for abuse incl. prematurity and low birthweight, difficult temperment (nonrespnsivity, irritability, hyperactivity); por health, and younger age (under age 3 are at highest risk for physical abuse).