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30 Cards in this Set

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Lifespan Development
Social & Moral
Development
Attachment Theories
Psychoanalytic Theory describes attachment as consequence of oral gratification, while Learning Theory, the most supported, regards attachment the result of reinforcements (i.e., infants develop attachments to people who provide them with food, affection, and other pleasurable experiences). Harlow's study involving Rhesus monkeys - CONTACT COMFORT, pleasant tactile sensation. Ethological Theory proposes humans and other organisms have a biological tendency to form attachments b/c they help guarantee an infant's survival. Ethological theory originated from studies with animals that found that the critical period for imprinting in geese is during first 2-3 days after birth. Bowlby (1980) proposed human attachment results from infant's exposure to mother during critical period that causes a bond btwn infant and mother - humans born with biological predisposition increasing likelihood that attachment will form: infants are programmed to cry, smile, and vocalize to get caregiver's attention, protection, and love, while adults are programmed to respond to infant's behaviors.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral
Development
Signs of Attachment
during first few mos of life, infants emit attachment behaviors indiscriminately, but by 6-7 mos, behaviors become invreasingly directed toward primary caregiver(s). Signs of attachment include SOCIAL REFERENCING, SEPARATION, and STRANGHER ANXIETY.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral
Development
Social Referencing
Social referencing: by about 6 mos, infants begin to demonstrate social referncing, which involves looking to caregiver to determine how to respond in new or ambiguous sitauations.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral
Development
Separation Anxiety
Separation Anxiety refers to distress that occurs when a child is separated from primary caretaker. begins at about 6-8 mos and peaks in intensity at 14-18 mos. and then gradually declines.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral
Development
Stranger Anxiety
Stranger Anxiety - by about 8-10 mos, infant becomes very anxious and fearful in presence of stranger, especially when caregiver is not nearby or when caregiver does not respond positively to stranger. Stranger anxiety continues to about age 2 and then diminishes.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Patterns of Attachment
Secure Attachment
Secure Attachment: Strange situation, securely attached infant mildly upset by mother's absense and actively seeks contact with her when she returns. Mothers of securely attached infanys emotionally sensitive and responsive to babies' cues.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Patterns of Attachment
Insecure (Anxious)/Ambivalent Attachment
Insecure Anxious)/Ambivalent Attachment: Infant very disturbed when left alone with stranger but is ambivalent when mother returns and may become angry and resist her attempts at physical contact. Mothers of these children often moody and inconsistent in their caregiving (i.e., sometimes indifferent, at other times entusiastic).
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Patterns of Attachment
Insecure (Anxious)/Avoidant Attachment
Insecure (anxious)/Avoidant Attachment: infant shows little distress when mother leaves room and avoids or ignores her when she returns. Mothers of avoidant children are vey impatient and unresponsive or, at the other extreme provide their children with too much stimulation.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Patterns of Attachment
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: Children exhibit fear of their caregivers. confused facial expression, and a variety of other disorganized attachment behaviors (e.g., greeting mothers when she returns but then turning away from her). About 80% of infants who have been mistreated by caregivers exhibit this pattern.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Patterns of Attachment
Summary
Early attachment seems to affect subsequent development: children who were securely attached as infants tend to be more curious, more popular w/peers, and less dependent on adults at age 4-5; and as adults, tend to have high self-esteem and a strong sense of personal identity. Infants exhibiting disorganized/disoriented attachment may act in hostile ways toward other children at age 5. Does not appear that insecure attachment in infancy is necessarily linked to poor social adj. or psychopathology in adulthood.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Attachment of Fathers
Research confirms infants form attachments to fathers even when mother are primary caregivers and that children usually exhibit similart types of attachment to both parents. Attachment to fathers is more a function of the quality of interactions btwn father and infant than a reflection of amt. of time spent together. Typse of interactions that lead to attachment center around play activities for fathers and nurturance and caregiving for mothers.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Prolonged Separation
Children separated prior to 3 mos show little or no negative consequences; children 9 mos or older at time of separation exhibit moderate to extreme reactions including feeding and sleeping prob., social withdrawal, increased stranger anxiety, and either physical rejection of new mother or excessive clinging to her. Theseresults consistent w/finding that early institutionalization has most negative impact when separation of mother and infant occur during 2nd half of 1st yr of life. Infants may develop anaclitic depression (syndrome involving dev. delays), unresponsiveness, and withdrawal. Late adoptees have higher-than-normal rates of emotional and behavioral prob. but also children initially raised in institutions able to develop close bond with adoptive parents as long as adopted by age 6.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Intergenerational Effects of Attachment - Adult patterns
A meta-analysis of research using Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) confirmed a r/s btwn parents' own early attachment experience and the attachment patterns of their children.
Autonomous: adults w/this classification on the AAI give coherent descriptions of their childhood r/s with their parents; they tend to have children who exhibit a secure attachment in the strange situation.
Dismissing: adults w/this classification on the AAI provide a positive description of their childhood relations with their parents but descriptions are either not supported or are contraindicated by specific memories. Children of these adults often exhibit an avoidant attachment pattern.
Preoccupied: adults receiving thos classification on the AAI become very angry or confused when describing their childhood r/s with aprents or seem passively preoccupied with a parent. Their children most ofetn exhibit a resistent/ambivalent attachment pattern.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Sibling Relationships
Children often exhibit sibling rivalry (most intense among same-gender siblings 1 1/2 - 3 yrs apart) and whose parents provide inconsistent discipline. During early childhoos, most interactions involve prosocial, play-oriented behaviors; middle childhood, usually marked by paradoxical combination of closeness/conflict and cooperation/competition. adolescence, sibling spend less time together, and friction btwn them usually declines as they begin to view ea other as equals; in later adulthood, siblings who were close in childhood likely to become closer in old age, while those who had poor r/s may become more hostile and rivalrous.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Peer Rejection
children who were actively rejected by peers are overaggressive or withdrawn, immature, and low in socila competence; tend to get low grades and have poor self-concept; and ad adol. and adults, are at higher risk for delinquent and antisocial behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychological d/o. Distinctionbtwn rejected and neglected children: overall outcomes worse for children who were actively rejected by peers. Rejected children express greater loneliness and peer dissatisfaction and are less likely to experience an improvement in peer status when they change social groups.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Peer Pressure
Adol. marked by increased susceptibility to peer pressure, peer influence is generally stronger for prosocial behaviors than antisocial ones. At about 14-15, peer conformity peaks and adol. most responsive to all tytpes of peer influence - neutral, positive and negative. Compliance to peer pressur declines in later adol. Graetes degree of peer pressure related to smoking, drinking alcohol, and engaging in sexual intercourse. Peers have more influence with regard to everyday issues (e.g. music, clothing, and social activities), parents more influential regarding basic beliefs and values, and educational and career goals.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Aggression
High levels of aggression linked to family factors. Families of highly aggerssive boys distiguishable from other families by two factors: a) coercive interactions (use of coercive, aggressive behaviors by children and parents to gain compliance; b) poor parental monitoring of children's activities. COERCIVE FAMILY INTERACTION MODEL - proposes children initially learn aggressive behaviors from parents who rarely reinforce prosocial behaniors, use harsh discipline, and reward children's aggressiveness w/approval and attention and over tome aggressive parent-child interactions escalate. Parental interventiondeveloped to stop coercive cycle by teaching parents child management skills and providing them with therapy to help them cope more effectively w/stress.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Aggression
Social-cognitive factor contribute to aggression: aggressive children differ from peers in terms of two beliefs: a) self-efficacy beliefs (more likely tosay it is easy to perform aggressive acts but difficult to inhibit aggresive impulses); b) beliefs about the outcomes of their behaviors (expect that aggression will be followed by positive consequences including reduced aversive treatment by others). Aggression linked to a tendency to misinterpret the positive or ambiguous acts of others as intentionally hostile.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Gender & Aggression
Boys more aggresive than females: boys engage in more rough-and-tumble play, exhibit greater physical aggression, and more dominant with peers. gender differences due to gradual decline w/increasing age up thru college yrs. While boys more overly (verbally and physically) aggresive, girls show more relational aggression (attempt to harm or exert control over others by withdrawing friendship and acceptance.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Reducing Aggression
Modeling and reinforcing alternative prosocial behaviors. Cognitive training successful w/highly aggresive boys; intervention includes teaching thet a) aggression hurts others and causes unhappiness; b) aggression doesn't solve problems; abd c) conflicts can be successfully resolved in other ways. Effectiveness of intervention consistent w/research showing empathy is important motivator for moral behavior and that inductive techniques foster development of empathy.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Aggression
Juvenile Offenders
Age at first offense is best predictor of reoffense, the younger the age at first offense, the higher the risk for rcidivism.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Piaget's theory- Moral Dev.
Children progress thru 3 stages: prior to age 6, children in the PREMORAL stage and exhibit little concern for rules. HETERONOMOUS MORALITY stage: extends from about 7 thru 10 - children believe that rules are set by authority figures and are unalterable (consider whether rule violated and consequences of act - greater the negative consequences, the worse the act. AUTONOMOUS MORAITY (morality of cooperation) stage - at about age 11, children view rules as being arbitrary and alterable when people who are governed by them agree to change them (when judging an act, they focus on the intention of the actor than on act's consequences.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Piaget's theory- Moral Dev.
Piaget concluded very young children are "spontaneous liars" and consider their false statements to be "natural" and harless. By age 7-8, they begin to intentionally communicate false stmts; and by 10-11, recognize they can be deceived by others. Subsequent research suggests. children as young as age 3-4 lie intentionally. most often to avoid punishment or obatin a reward.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Kholberg's theory- Moral Dev.
"Heinz dilemma" - developed a universal, invariant sequence of 3 levels of moral development: Preconventional, Conventional, and Postconventional; each of which subdivided into 2 stages. Though indv differences exist, people typically shift from preconventional to conventional at abut age 10-11 and from conventional to postcoventional in late adol. or adulthood.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Kholberg's theory-Moral Dev.
Preconventional Morality
Preconventional Mmorality:
Punishment & Obedience Orientation: goodness and badness of act depends on consequences. Right course of action is one that allows avoidance of punishment.
Instrumenta Hedonism: Consequences still guide moral judgments but judgments based on obtaining rewards and satisfying personal needs than avoiding punishment.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Kholberg's theory-Moral Dev.
Conventional Morality
Conventional Morality:
Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation: right action one that is liked or approved of by others.
Law and Order Orientation: moral judgments based on the rules and laws esatblished by legitimate authorities.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Kholberg's theory-Moral Dev.
Postconventional Moraity
Postconventional Moraity:
Moraity of Contract, Individual Rights, and Democratically Accepted Laws: morally right action is one consistent with democratically determined laws (which can be changed if they interfere with basic rights).
Morality and Individual Principles of Conscience: Right and wrong are determined on basis of broad, self-chosen universally-applicable ethical principles.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Kholberg's theory-Moral Dev.
Summary
Theory proposed that progression thru stages depends not only on level of reasoning but also on a) the indv.'s motivation (needs), b) opportunities to take other's perpsective (social perspective-taking); and c) exposure to social institutions that foster equality and reciprosity (i.e., democratic institutions). To foster moral dev., Kholberg advocated establishment of a just community inschools that provides students with opportunities to discuss moral dilemmas and resolve conflicts that arise thru open discussions btwn students and staff.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Gilligan's theory-Moral Dev.
Argues Kholberg's theory not applicable to females wose judgments are more ofetn influenced by concerns related to caring, compassion, and responsibility to others, which led to development of her stage model.
Lifespan Development
Social & Moral Development
Gilligan's theory-Moral Dev.
Level 1 - Orientation of Indv. Survival (focus on what is best for oneself)
Transitin 1 - from Selfishness to Responsibility (recognition that one is connected to others).
Level 2 - Goodness as Self-Sacrifice (sacrifice of one's own desires for those of others).
Transition 3 -From Goodness to Truth (focus on coordinating one's responsibilities to self and others).
Level 3 - Morality of Nonviolence (avoiding harm to oneself and to others is the foremost consideration).