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18 Cards in this Set

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Lifespan Development
Language Development
Theories
Nativist Approach
attributes language acquisition to biological mechanisms and stress universal patterns of language development; Chomsky advocates & proposes innate language acquisition device (LAD) - language acquired by exposure; children master language basics btwn 4 & 6 regardless of complexity and children from all cultures go thru same stages of lang. dev.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Theories
Interactionist Approach
lang. dev. results from combination of biological and envir. factors. Stresses impact of social interactions. "Motherese" - speak slowly, use shorter and simpler sentences, exaggerate and repeat most important words, and frequently ask questions; response to child is often an expansion of what child says - e.g., me go: yes we are going to the store.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Language Structure
Surface structure - organization of words, phrases, and sentences.
Deep structure - underlying meaning of sentences. Difference most obvious in ambiguous sentences - visiting relative can be tiresome. Chomsky's tranformational grammar - speaking involves tranforming deep structure (meaning) into surface structure (grammatical sentences), while listening entails tranforming a sentence's surface structure into its deep structure.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Language Characteristics
Phonemes vs Morphemes
Speech Sounds-two types:
PHONEMES - smallest units of sound that are understood in a language.
MORPHEMES - smallest units of sound that convey meaning and made up of one or more phonemes ("do," "go" OR "un," "ed" and "ing").
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Different cultures similar stages & throughout stages, receptive lang. (comprehension) precedes productive language.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
CRYING
Infants - 3 distinct patterns of crying: hunger, anger, and pain; by 1 or 2 mos, fussy (irregular). All adults - not just parents - respond to infant's cry with pain producing strongest reponse. Pain cry creates greatest physiological reaction for mothers but also likely to cause anxiety and worry and an immediate behavioral response. Most common & successful response to infant's cry - mother raises child to her shoulder in order to provide close physical contact.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Cooing and Babbling
beginning at 6-8 wks, infants produce cooing sounds consisting mainly of vowels and ususally emitted when infant is happy and content; at about 4 mos, babbling (involving repititon of simple consonant and vowel sounds (e.g., "bi-bi-bi"). Early babbling includes sounds from all languages, but btwn 9-14 mos, babies narrow reptoire of sounds to native lang. Deaf children begin babbling at same age but recent studies suggest only deaf children with residual hearing resemble hearing children in terms of early vebalizations. At about the same age that hearing chidren begin to babble, deaf children begin to make reptitive, rhythmic gestures ("babble') with hands.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Echolalia and Expressive Jargon
Beginning at 9 mos, children imitate adult speech sounds and words without an understanding of their meaning (echolalia) followed by vocaliztions of sounds resembling sentences but again with no meaning (expressive jargons).
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Holophrasic Speech
From age 1-2, children use holophrases - single words that express whole phrases and sentences. By using gestures and intonations, children can turn a single word into a comment, question, or command. FIRST WORDS most often "nominals" or labels for objects, people, or events, although action words, modifiers, and personal-social words (e.g., please) also occur. Nominals most likely to refer to dynamic objects (dog, car) and objects the child uses (spoon). "Mama" or "dada" usually very first words.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Telegraphic Speech
By 18-24 mos, children exhibit TELEGRAPHIC SPEECH - string two or more words together to make a sentence (e.g., "me go," "more juice") usually containing only nouns, verbs or adjectives and by 27 mos prepositions and pronouns added (vocab. contains about 300-400 words.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Vocabulary Growth
At about age 18 mos, children begin to exhibit rapid increase in vocabulary, with fastest rate btwn 30-36 mos; at 36 mos, vocabulary 1000 words and sentences contain 3-4 words.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Grammatically Correct Sentences
From age 2 1/2 - 5, increasing sentence complexity, grammatical accuracy and continues vocabulary growth marked with about 50 new words learned ea mo. Child uses questions, negatives, and passive voice. temp overgeneralization of grammatical rules common.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Metalinguistic Awareness
Metalinguistic awareness - ability to reflect on lang. as communication tool and on themselves as language users. By 6-7 children recognize that words are different from the concepts they represent and can use words humorously and metaphorically.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Stages of Lang. Acquisition
Over- and Under-extension
Overextension: applies word to wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate (all w/4-legs are dogs).
Underextension: uses word in narrow sense (e.g., child uses "dish" only for the plastic dish h/she uses.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Language & Thought
Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes language determines nature of thought and predicts that cultures have different ways of thinking about the world b/c they have different languages.
Piaget's proposes that langauge is dependent on thought and somewhere in the middle, is the nativist view of language and thought being independent. Most prevalent view seems to be that the link btwn language and thought id bi-directional w/ ea influencing the other.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Gender & Language Style
During childhood, lang. of boys & girls reflects preferred interactions: boys rely more on language strategies that establish dominance, gain attention, and involve giving orders; girls more likely use lang. that provides support and demonstrates attentiveness. In conversations, males talk longer and likely to interrupt, while females likely to ask questions and attach "tag questions" to their statements.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Bilingualism
Early studies implied bilingualism leads to cognitive deficits but subsequent, better-controlled research found bilingual children do as well as, or even better than monolingual children on tests measuring cognitive and lang. dev. (cog. flexibility) but benefits temporary and indistiguishable by adolescence.
Lifespan Development
Language Development
Bilingual Education
Inconsistent results b/c existing programs vary in appraoch and quality but those participating in high quality bilingual programs acquire academic English and knowledge of subject matter as well as or better than those in English-only programs.
Code-switching: alternating between languages during a conversation and appear to serve several functions (e.g., better expression of self, establish rapport with listener, or effectively expressing attitude toward listener.