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94 Cards in this Set

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The MMPI's F Scale:
a- includes items freq endoresed by normals
b- includes items that describe the majority of people
c- is used to correct scores on several scales
d- is a measure of response consistency
a
An extremely high score on the F scale indicates:
carelessness in responding or a deliberate attempt to "fake bad.
Which scale includes items that describe the majority of people?
L
Which scale is sued to correct scores on other scales?
K
Which scale is a measure of response consistency?
Trin, Vrin
Attributions related to achievement vary, depending on sex of achiever
(1) both males and females viewed ability as the cause of success for males on traditionally masculine tasks, (2) both males and females viewed luck as the cause of success for females on traditionally masculine tasks, (3) both males and females viewed ability as the cause of success for males and females on traditionally feminine tasks.
organicity =
brain damage
Projective Idenitification (Klein)
a mechanism that is revealed in fantasies in which the subject inserts the self (in part or whole) into the object in order to possess or control the object. It can be considered a type of projection.
Example: a woman who doesn't want to own her feelings of love and hate manipulates another person into experiencing them
theme interference
Example: a therapist reacts to low SES clients in ways consistent with childhood stereotypes
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Korsakoff's syndrome is caused by a thiamine deficiency, often as the result of chronic alcoholism.

People with Korsakoff's syndrome can often recall events from the remote past (events that occurred prior to the time they began drinking), but have deficits in more recent past memories and in the ability to transfer new information from short- to long-term memory.
Korsakoff's affects:
implicit or explicit memory
explicit
implicit vs. explicit memory
implicit: automatic
explicit: requires conscious recollection
Stroke
Strokes cause focal brain damage that reflects the arterial territory (or territories) involved. Most strokes occur in the region of the middle cerebral artery, which supplies blood to a number of areas of the brain including the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes.
Symptoms associated with stroke in middle cerebral artery:
Expressive aphasia results when the dominant (left) hemisphere is involved; when the nondominant (right) hemisphere is affected, denial of defects and left-sided neglect are common.
Heredity is responsible for what percent of MR cases?
5%
OCD and OCPD share which sx's:
a-prominent obsessions
b-repetitive rituals
c-risk aversion
d-emotional rigidity
B
In OCD, rituals are performed to reduce anxiety; in OCPD, rituals are related to perfectionism.
With regard to informed consents in research, APA's Ethics Code:
requires psychologists to provide potential research participants with specific information in "reasonably understandable language" prior to consenting to participate
Tx of Migraine Headaches:
Combo of relaxation (autogenic) training and biofeedback together is better than either alone
According to ____________, symbolic play offers young children opportunities to engage in activities that are developmentally more advanced than they could successfully perform in reality on their own
Vygotsky
In response to questions included in the Adult Attachment Interview, a 34-year old mother describes her childhood relationships with her own parents as very positive, but she is unable to come up with specific examples of pleasant experiences with them. Although she says this inability is due to poor memory, she is able to recall other events that occurred during early childhood. Most likely, this woman's 13-month old baby will exhibit which of the following attachment patterns in the Strange Situation
Avoidant
Relationship between parents early attachments and child's current attachment style:
-autonomous on AAI
-dismissing on AAI
-unresolved/disorganized
-preoccupied
child has:
-secure attachment
-avoidant attachment
-disorganized/disoriented
-resistant
Adult Attachment Interview Styles:
Autonomous
In response to interview questions, these parents describe their childhood relationships with parents as either negative or positive and are able to provide specific examples that support their descriptions.
Adult Attachment Interview Styles:
Dismissing
Parents categorized as "dismissing" describe their relations with parents in positive terms but are unable to recall specific examples that support their descriptions.
Adult Attachment Interview Styles:
Preoccupied
These parents describe their childhood relationships in negative or confused ways but are unable to provide specific examples to support their descriptions.
Adult Attachment Interview Styles:
Unresolved/Disorganized
is assigned to respondents who have an unresolved experience related to loss or abuse. It is assigned in conjunction with one of the three categories listed above.
4 AAI Styles
Autonomous
Dismissing
Preoccupied
Unresolved/Disorganized
The technique known as DRO is most effective when:
the alternative behavior is already in the person's repertoire
DRO
In DRO (differential reinforcement for other behavior), the individual is reinforced at the end of each time period during which he/she engages in behaviors other than the target behavior
A working mother who has been reassured by her husband and friends many times that she is a "great mother," states that she is a "terrible mother" after she forgets to wash her daughter's baseball uniform the night before an important game. Aaron Beck would consider the mother's conclusion to be an example of which of the following:
a-personalization
b-arbitrary inference
c-selective abstraction
d-dichotomous thinking
d-
c-
d-
arbitrary inference:
when a person attributes external events to him/herself without evidence supporting such a causal connection
Personalization
drawing a specific conclusion without supporting evidence or in the face of contradictory evidence.
arbitrary inference
when a person interprets a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context (e.g., a jealous husband thinks his wife is having an affair with the neighbor when he sees her pat the neighbor on the back).
selective abstraction
categorizing an experience in terms of one of two extremes (e.g., "If I do this, everything will be perfect; if I don't, everything will be terrible").
dichotomous thinking
Transcortical aphasia
A person with transcortical aphasia is unable to verbally describe what he or she sees or desires and also has deficits in language comprehension. However, the person may be able to generate automatic-like responses (e.g., singing) and be able to repeat statements made by others. When the damage is limited to certain areas of the brain, the individual may exhibit a more limited type of transcortical aphasia – i.e., transcortical motor aphasia (intact comprehension with difficulties in producing speech) or transcortical sensory aphasia (difficulties in comprehension only).
A person with transcortical aphasia will have problems with:
Production?
Comprehension?
Both?
Both
Note: repetition intact
Studies looking at the impact of gender on reactions to crowding have found that:
women cope better in lab settings, but men cope better in real life settings
When using the Adult Attachment Interview, a mother will be classified as ____________ if she describes her parents in positive terms (e.g., "Dad was a very loving person") but either reports negative interactions with her parents or says she can't remember any early interactions with them.
Dismissing
Statistics on the risk for suicide among adolescents from single-parent and dual-parent families show that:
girls and boys from single-parent families are both at higher risk than girls and boys from dual-parent families
Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory distinguishes between three stages in gender identity development. The first stage is ________, which involves recognizing one's own gender and is ordinarily first apparent between 2 and 3 years of age:
gender identity
When working with clients with severe depression, Aaron Beck is most likely to begin therapy with:
a-hypnosis
b-pharmacotherapy
c-cognitive restructuring exercises
d-behavioral tasks
behavioral tasks that are designed to increase the client's overall activity level (e.g., graded task assignments).

For clients with mild to moderate depression, cognitive techniques are introduced during initial sessions.
The nature of the relationship between a measure's reliability coefficient and its correlation with another measure (e.g., its validity coefficient) suggests that all of the following are possible except:
a-a measure with a low reliability coefficient can correlate more highly with another measure than it does with itself if the other measure has a high reliability coefficient
b-a measure with a reliability coefficient of 1.0 can have a zero correlation with another measure even if the other measure has a high reliability coefficient
c-ameasure with a near-zero reliability coefficient will have a low correlation with another measure regardless of the size of the other measure's reliability coefficient
d-the reliability coefficient of either measure can be no less than the square root of the correlation between the two measures
d

Note: The reliability of a measure can be no less than the square (not the square root) of the validity (correlation) coefficient.
From the perspective of Holland's approach to career choice and career counseling, a highly differentiated person:
According to Holland, a person is highly differentiated when he/she obtains a high score on only one personality dimension. He also believed that a personality-occupational match is most accurate for predicting outcomes for those who are highly differentiated.
According to the __________, the relative frequency of responding to an alternative corresponds to the frequency of reinforcement for responding to that alternative.
matching law

(frequency of responding matches frequency of reinforcement)
The law of contiguity states that
learning depends on the proximity of stimuli in space and time.
According to the Law of Effect,...
a behavior that is followed by a "satisfying consequence" will be likely to occur again.
Korsakoff's affects what areas of brain?
mamillary bodies and thalamus
According to Super’s lifespan model of career development, a major task of the ________ stage is to update one’s skills through training:
maintenance
Super's 5 Stages of Career Dx
growth (ages 4-13):
exploration (14-24)
establishment (ages 25-44)
maintenance (ages 45-65)
disengagement (ages 65+)
Super's Stage in which:
dx understanding of meaning of work
growth
Super's Stage in which:
gradually separate from paid employment.
disengagement
Super's Stage in which:
primary tasks are staying competitive with younger workers by obtaining necessary training and developing plans for retirement.
Maintenance
Super's Stage in which:
become aware of one’s abilities and interests and learning about the different types of work.
exploration
Super's Stage in which:
after trying several jobs, focus in one one career
Establishment
When using the survey feedback method in an organization, the purpose of the feedback is to:
provide employees with feedback about strengths and weaknesses of the organization
Note: employees then work together to ID solutions to organ's problems
Rapid withdrawal from Inderal, a non-selective beta-blocker, is not recommended because it can cause:
palpitations, headache, tremor, and myocardial infarction (in those with pre-existing heart condition)
Longitudinal studies of individuals who receive a diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder in adolescence or early adulthood indicate that these individuals often exhibit a reduction or remission in symptoms over time. However, recovery varies for type of symptom, with _________ symptoms showing the least amount of improvement with increasing age:
affective

Note: impuslive sx's resovled most quickly
The characteristic symptoms of Nicotine Withdrawal include all of the following except:
A-dysphoric/depressed mood
B-hypersomnia
C-decreasedaheartarate
D-increased appetite/weight gain
B
Insomnia, NOT hypersomnia
Which of the following is characteristic of Piaget's concrete operational stage:
a-dx of a reflexive self
b-ability to reason about reasoning
c-dx of unit concepts
d-emergence of represenation
a: As a result of the development of perspective-taking and a decline in egocentrism, the child is better able to consider the consequences of his/her actions and how others will respond to those actions.
If an adult takes phenobarbital every night for six weeks and then abruptly stops taking the drug, what will be the likely result on REM sleep
Increase
Barbiturate use causes a decrease in REM sleep and abrupt cessation of use can cause an "REM rebound," as well as an inability to sleep, poor quality sleep, and nightmares.
A child who has just progressed into Kohlberg's conventional level of moral development has been caught stealing from other children at school. The child's parents would be best advised to do which of the following to discourage the child's stealing:
Help her see how the other children will feel.
n this stage, children are cognitively able to put themselves in the place of others and, therefore, consider the feelings of others when making moral judgments. Consequently, this approach would be most effective with a child who is in Stage 3.
A person who has received a diagnosis of Somatization Disorder is most likely to also have which of the following:
a-phobic disorder
b-substance abuse
c-personality
d-bipolar
Personality Disorder
61% of people with Somatization Disorder have one or more co-occurring personality disorders. The next most common disorder is Major Depression (55%) followed by Generalized Anxiety Disorder (34%)
what are probands in research study?
In research, probands (also known as index cases) are the first individuals who are brought to the attention of the investigator – i.e., the people who are manifesting the disease or other characteristic of interest.
You conduct an item analysis of the items you plan to include in a new test of computer knowledge. You obtain a p value of .85 for item #47. This indicates that this item:
is easy

In the context of test construction, "p" is an index of item difficulty and is calculated by dividing the total number of examinees who answered the item correctly by the total number of examinees.
The closer the p value is to 1.0, the easier the item since this means that a large proportion of examinees answered the item correctly.
Research on Kohlberg's theory of moral development has found that very few people ever reach Stage 6. However, some do engage in Stage 5 reasoning and base their moral judgments on:
social contracts and democratically chosen laws
Based on her study of preschoolers and their parents, Diana Baumrind (1967, 1971) concluded that children of __________ parents tend to be "conflicted-irritable":
authoritarian
children of permissive parents tend to be:
impulsive-aggressive
children of authoritative parents are most often
"energetic-friendly."
children of authoritarian parents tend to be:
"conflicted-irritable"
i.e., fearful, moody, easily annoyed, and aimless.
According to Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model, a "telling" leader will respond to an employee who is low in both ability and motivation by:
providing the employee with close supervision and specific instructions (Telling)
Your client, a 75-year old woman, is displaying symptoms of paranoia. Along with a supportive environment, the best treatment for this client would probably be:
A hospitalization
B crisis intervention
C phenothiazines
D behavioratherapy
phenothiazines
The more intense a stimulus, the greater the change in intensity that must occur for a person to perceive the change. This statement summarizes the predictions of:
Weber's Law
the psychological magnitude of a sensation is proportional to the power of the stimulus producing it.
Steven's Law
the sensation experienced is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus magnitude.
Fechner's Law
n an adult, damage to the medial temporal area is least likely to have an adverse effect on:
A short-term memory
B autobiographicalamemory
C semantic memory
D spatial memory
Short term memory
(which is assoc'd with damage to prefrontal cortex)
Declarative (autobiographcial and semantic) memory and spatial memory are assoc'd with what part of brain:
medial temporal
Dummy coding:
makes it possible to include categorical predictors in a multiple regression equation.
Recovery from stroke:
how quickly does most improvement occur, and which improves faster (physical or cognitive sx's)
6 months,
physical damage improves first, then cognitive sx's
A patient taking clozapine exhibits several symptoms including tachycardia, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, altered consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction.
The best action in this case would be to:
stop immediately and administer electrolytes

(sx's are NMS)
On the MMPI, "faking bad" should be considered if an examinee obtains:
A a very high F or K scale score
B a very high F scale score or a very low K scale score
C a very low F scale score or a very high K scale score
D a very low F or K scale
A very high F or a very low K scale score
Which MMPI scale refers to the extent to which an examinee answers in an atypical or deviant manner.
F scale
Which MMPI scale measures the degree to which an examinee describes himself in an overly positive manner?
K scale
A low score on which MMPI scale may indicate a lack of insight, disorientation, or faking bad?
K scale
A high score on which MMPI scale suggests random responding, significant pathology, or faking bad.
F scale
As a practitioner of brief psychodynamically-oriented therapy, you are most likely to agree that positive transference:
A is important to establish early in treatment
B is somewhat less important than negative transference
Cshould, like negative transference, be discouraged
D is best if it occurs at the end of treatment after any negative transferences have been resolved
A
Most practitioners of brief psychodynamic therapy consider positive transference to be useful for maximizing a client's motivation to work for therapeutic goals. However, a full-scale transference neurosis is seen as an impediment given the short duration of the treatment.
Auditory localization is dx'd by:
end of first year
According to Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership, a task motivated leader is most effective when his or her relations with subordinates are:
A very good
B very poor
C very good or very poor
D moderate
C
To use two or more categorical variables to predict status on a single categorical variable, you would use which of the following:
A path analysis
B logit analysis
C multiple regression analysis
D canonical correlation analysis
B
Sherif's (1965) social judgment theory implies that, before trying to persuade someone to your point of view, you should consider his/her:
A categories of judgment
B locus of control
C category-based expectancies
D level of self-monitoring
A
Categories= latitude of acceptance/rejection/non-commitment
Which of the following has been found to be most rapid and most effective for suppressing the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia:
A anticholinergic agents
B lithium
C SSRIs
D benzodiazepines
D
Benzodiazepines act as GABA agonists (i.e., they stimulate the production of GABA) and have been found to be useful for reducing the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia. Diazepam and clonazepam have been found to be particularly effective.
An infant's first expression of fear is often in response to unfamiliar adults. The onset and severity of this "stranger anxiety" depends on several factors -- for instance, the child's temperament and previous experience with strangers -- but is ordinarily first evident when the child is _____ months of age:
6-8 months
A psychologist tells the parents of an 8-year old to give him a "time-out" each time he torments his little sister. The parents find that, over time, the child needs less and less time in the time-out to calm down and apologize for his behavior. The boy's behavior is being controlled by which of the following:
negative reinforcement
Studies on concurrent schedules of reinforcement have found that an organism's relative frequency of responding to one alternative corresponds to the relative frequency of reinforcement for responses to that alternative. This phenomenon is referred to as:
the matching law
A strategic family therapist is working with a family in which the husband and wife have avoided their own conflicts by focusing their attention on the problems of their 9-year old son. The therapist in this situation is most likely to:
A educate the parents about "triangulation"
B obtain a detailed family history from the husband and wife to identify the pattern of interactions in their families of origins
C give the husband and wife a homework assignment designed to foster recognition of the conflicts that exist between them
D have the family members adopt the roles of each other and role-play a typical family interaction
C
As defined by DSM-IV-TR, "primary gain" is a goal of which of the following disorders:
A Conversion Disorder
B Factitious Disorder
C Malingering
D Hypochondriasis
Conversion Disorder