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108 Cards in this Set

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Qualitative Change

Quantitative Change
Piaget, Erikson, Freud: Stage based, not mastering a stage impacts later stages. Fundemental differences in development

Quantitative: Robbie Case, Additive model, change based on maturation, is gradual and uniform over time.
*Bronfenbrenner
-Microsystem: Everyday relationships (parent child, child school)
-Mesosystem: Interaction between microsystem (parent-school)
-Exosystem: Relationship between 2 or more settings but somebody not present (kid impacted by parent's work)
-Macrosystem: Culture, religion, political systems
-Chromsystem: Passage of time and the impact of life events (birth of sibling, war, etc)
Normative Events:

Age graded Normative Events
History Graded Normative Events
Non-Normative Influences
Age graded Normative Events (commonly experienced by ppl of particular age ex. kindergarten
History Graded Normative: experienced by cohort (war)

Non-Normative Influences: Unusual events having major impact (death, birth defect, fire)
Critical Period
Stage must be mastered or further stages can't be. Ex. embryonic stage (organs must develop or won't function right). Also ducks/imprinting.
Sensitive Period
If stage/skill not mastered, it can be done later but may be difficult (ex. language)
RNA has a role in ___ and ____

Human cell has __ pairs of chromosomes
Role in memory as well as genetics

23
Genotype

Phenotype
Genotype: Whats in person's genes (carrying)

Phenotype: observable characteristics
Autosomes

Sex chromosomes
Unrelated to sexual experssion - we have 22.

xx-female, xy, male
Klinefelters Syndrome
Men only
extra x - xxy
Taller, less IQ (90)
secondary sex characteristics (breast, small testies, high voice). Can't have children (typically marry though)
Turners Syndrom
Woman
Missing X - (XO)
Normal IQ,
secondary sex characteristics (no menstration, ovulatio
Down's Syndrom
Trisomy 21
3 chromosomes on chromosome 21.
Mental retardation, deformaties
PKU (Phenylketonuria)
Autosomal, recessive (both parents must carry). Can't matabolize phenylalanine, if detected early can have appropriate diet
Hemophilia
Sex linked, recessive.
more common in males. Requires transfusions w/blood clotting blood
Sicke cell anema
recessive. fragile red blood cells, clog vessels causing anemia, pain, stunted growth
Prenatal Development stages (3 stages)
1.Germinal - 2 weeks, zygote attaches to wall

2.Embryonic - 2-12 weeks, organ dev. most vulnerable to teratogenic agents

3.Fetal - 8/12 weeks - birth. growth in a cephalocaudal fashion (top down).
Prenatal Dev Maternal Factors
Nutrition: most detremental when in utero

Alcohol: FAS (lifelong)

Cocaine: Spontaneous abortion, low birth wieght

Nicotine: death, low birth rate
Sexual Dimorphism
differences in sexes of same species. Humans have less differences than other species
Infant Reflexes

Moro
Rooting
Babinski
Grasp
Moro: Extends legs/arms (startle)

Rooting: Turn head/open mouth, sucking

Babinski: Spread tows/twist foot when stroked

Grasp: Fist around object placed in hand
Perceptual Development - Senses. Developed at birth except ____?
Vision. 20-20 between 6months and 2 years.

Can distinguish mothers face by 1 month
Motor Skill Development
6 wks: Head erect
2-3 mths: roll over
6-7 mths: Sit alone
7-8 mths: stand w/support
11 mths: stand alone
11-13 mths: Walk alone
16 mths: walk up steps
24 months: toilet training
6-7 yrs: New stage, smooth movements, athletic
Brain Dev:
birth: 25-33% of adult size
2 yrs: 75%
5 yrs: 90%
Plasticity
If 1 hemesphere damaged before 7 or 8, brain can compensate.

Handedness develops after 7 or 8 due to less plasticity
Myelination
continues into 20's
Puberty: ages, girls and boys
girls: 10-12, boys 12-14.

Early maturation better for boys, mixed for girls. effects wash out by 12th grade
Menopause
45-55 yrs old. Not a high rate of psych problems, mood swings, etc.
Primary Aging

Secondary Aging
Primary: wear and tear

Secondary: Result of disease, disuse, neglect
Sexual Activity and age
Frequency of sex in earlier years

Men: 70s/80s, woman: Life long. Availability of partners is biggest barrier for women
Social Buffer Hypothesis
Perception of social support more important than actual degree of social support
Language Development
1. Crying
2. Cooing 6-12 wks
3. Babbling 6-10 mths
4. work Comprehension 9-10 mths
5. Echolalia 9-10 mths
6. Holographic speech (1 word) 12-18 mths
7. Telegraphic speech 18-24 mths
Holophrasic Speech

Phoneme
Morpheme
1 word sentences (12-18 mths)

Phomeme (smallest unit of speech - 'da'

Morphome: smallest meaningful term 'daddy'
15 month old has how many words?
18 month old?
24 months?
15: 10

18: 50

200
Telegraphic Speech
2 word sentences, 18-24 months
Babbling sounds and 6 months
at 6 months, babbling only happens in native language. prior to that, all sounds. Even true w/deaf kids.
Nativist View of Language aquisition
Chompsky - children have a language acquisition device (LAD). supported by uniform way in which children learn language
Nuturist View of Language Development
Language developed based on interaction w/environment and rewards
Interactionist View
Combines nurture and nativist view. Most favored
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
Language influences how we think. ex, circular languages > circular thinking.
Dyslexia: Rate?
3-20%, more in Lower SES
Deep Dyslexia
Surface Dyslexia
Phonological Dyslexia
Neglect
Deep Dyslexia: misreads word for one w/similar meaning

Surface Dyslexia: Can't recognize words, sounds them out. Come would be a problem- Home - Dome

Phonological Dyslexia: can't read nonwords, like sqiflish, otherwise no problems.

Neglect: Misses 1st or 2nd half of word.
Piaget - idiographic work
Studied relatively few children intensely
Piaget: Epigenesis
Epigenesis: Growth/development occurs in stages, each is built on mastery of previous stage.
Piaget: 3 principles

Organization
Adaptation
Assimilation
Accomodation
Equilibrium
Organization: Dev increasingly complex systems of knowledge. Schemata (cog structures)
Adaptation (changing structures)
Assimilation (assim to - plane is a bird - ass)
Accomodation (Accom in)

Equilibration: Strive for balance in person, schemas, environment - helps move to next needed stage when imbalance is felt.
Decalage
Unevenness in development
Piaget - 4 stages - list them:
Sensorimotor 0-2 (when lang develops)

Preoperational Stage 2-7

Concrete Operations 7-11

Formal Operations 11-adolescence
sensory motor stage 0-2 years
-Learn through sensory observation, interacting w/environment

Object Permanence

Symbolic Representation (using symbols/words to represent things)
Preoperational Stage 2-7
intuitive thinking (lack of logic/deduction)

Egocentrisim: Unable to take others standpoint

Phenomenalistic Causality: inaccurate cause/effect

Animism: teddy bear has feelings

Irreversibility: Can't undue something (ball of clay, smooshed))

Centration: inability to focus on 2 things at same time (grandma is mothers mother. Line vs. pile of coins)
Concrete Operations 7-11
Operational Thought: Logical thought, serialization, reason.

Conservation: Recognize that forms may change, objects retain characteristics. Opposite of irriversability
Formal Operations 11-adolescence
Deductive, if>then thinking

-metecognition
Piaget Criticism
Underestimate abilities at certain ages. Lack of cultural issues addressed
Piaget Constructivism
Knowledge based on learning and interacting w/environment.
Piaget and Peers
Believed peers impact cognitive dev more than parents based on being at a similar level of development.
Vygotsky's Developmental Theory of Cognition

Zone of proximal development
Cog Dev results from social interactions/relationship
Vygotsky's Developmental Theory of Cognition

Zone of proximal development
distance between what a child can do independently vs what they can do w/out guidance. Optimal area to target new skills.

Led to Scaffolding and recipricol teaching (discussion of problem solving; interactive)
Information Processing Model
Quantitative model; information processing/improvement is gradual and based on development and maturation.
Elkind: Adolescent thinking

Personal Fable

Imaginary Audience
Personal Fable: Adolescents belief that rules don't apply to them, leads to risk taking.

Imaginary Audience: Audience around at all times, leads to self consciousness.
Aging:

*Crystallized intelligence

Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized intelligence: Verbal concepts, well learned. WAIS Vocab, Information, Comprehension

Fluid Intelligence: Ability to perform a novel task - peaks in adolescence, then declines.
Aging: Memory
Short term memory - 2 types
SHort term memory=30 secs

Primary Memory: "holding tank", no manipulation

Working Memory: Hold and manipulate (digit reversal)
Causes of memory decline
Hippocampus Apathy (shrinks)

Decreased Neurotransmitters (AcH)
Long term memory and aging
Episodic Memory
Semantic Memory
Procedural Memory
long term shows most decline
Episodic Memory: What u had for lunch, did u lock the car - largest decline

Semantic: facts, stays intact

procedural: Motor memory (ride a bike), stays intact
Piaget
2 stages of morality
heteronomous
Autonomous
heteronomous morality (5-10): egocentric, rigid thinking about morality. Authority figures make rules, follow w/out question.

Autonomous morality (10-): flexibility in thinking. Rules are flexible, changed if needed.
Kohlberg - 3 stages, 2 substages in each
(PCP)
Preconventional (4-10): Act out of self interest
a. Punishment-obedience (avoid punishment)
b. Instrumental Hedonism (get rewards for following rules

Conventional (10-13)
a. Good boy/Good girl: gain approval for obedience
b. Law and Order: Doing ones duty for social order

Post Conventional Morality (early as 13, or never)
a. Morality of contract/individual rights/democratically accepted laws: Values welfare of society
b. Morality of principles oc Conscience: based on what individual believes is right, regardless of law/opinions of others. Act in accordance of internalized Standards
Kohlberg - all 6 stages include
4-10
1. Punishment/Obedience
2. Instrumental Hedenism

10-?
3. Good boy/Good girl
4. Law and Order

Early as 13 or never
5. Morality of Contract/Ind. Rights/Democratically Accepted Laws
6. Morality of Individual Principles of Contract
Gilligan - men vs. women
Justice Perspective: Males focus on fairness/justice

Caring Perspective: Women focus on conflict between their needs and others/their responsibilities for others
Gilligan Stages - 3
(survive, sacrifice, non violence
1. Orientation of Individual Survival: Woman focuses on what is best for her.

2. Goodness as Self Sacrifice: Wish to meet others needs (concerned w/what others think of her)

3. Morality of Nonviolence: Equality, nobody should be hurt
Development of Conscience: Kochanska
Inhibitory Control/low impulsivity (trait)

Parenting Style:

-Mutual positive affect between mom and child

-low power assertion by mother

-maternal empathy
Freud Psychosexual Stages
0-1: Oral
1-3 : Anal (toilet training)
3-5: Phalic (focus on genitals)
5/6-12: Latency (quiet period)
12-18: Genital
Erikson: 8 stages/crisis and resulting strength
1: (0-1) Trust vs. Mistrust: Hope
2. (1-3) Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt: Will
3: (3-5/6) Initiative vs. Guilt: Purpose
4. (5/6-12) Industry vs. Inferiority: Competence
5. (12-18) Identity Vs. Role Confusion: Fidelity
6: (18-35) Intimacy vs. isolation: Love
7. (35-60) Generativity vs. stagnation: Care
8. (60+) Integrity vs. despair: Wisdom
Mahler - 6 stage model focused on ____ and ____?
Separation: Separate physical entity

Individuation: Psychologically distinct individual
Mahler 6 stages
1. (1 mth) Normal Infantile Autism: unaware of external world (less supported by research)

2. (2-4 mths) Symbiosis: baby and mother are one.

3. (5-10 mths Differentiation: distinguishes self/other - stranger anxiety shows up.

4. (10-16 mths) Practicing: baby can physically separate; walk/crawl - separation anxiety

5. (16-24 mths) Rapproachment: Increased need for mother to share experience

6. Object constancy (2-3 yrs): Object permanence and unifying good and bad into one whole
Levinson: Seasons of a man's life. 8 stages
1. Early adult transition
2. Entering adult world (17-22)
3. Age 30 transition (22-28) - stressful, realize little time to establish life
4. Settling Down (33-40)
5. Midlife transition (40-45): Time since birth > time till death
6. Middle adulthood (45-50)
7. Age 50 transition (50)
8. Later adulthood: Retirement/death
Attachment - Conrad Lorenze
Attachment is instinctual
Imprinting (critical period) - ducks
Attachment - Harlow
Wire/cloth surrogate monkey. Would go to cloth when upset -

"contact comfort"/tactile stimulation important
Attachment - bowlby
3 stages of reaction to maternal deprivation:
1. Protest
2. Despair
3. Detachment (indifference)
Rene Spitz: Anaclytic Depression
Weepy, withdrawal, insomnia, decline and health based on deprived maternal attention (6-8 months)
Ainsworth - attachement. 3 styles, plus Main's = 4.
Secure (65%)

Avoidant (20%): Lack of closeness when leaving or returning. Aloof or overly intrusive caretaker.

Ambivalent (10%): Clinging when left, happy when returned but resist closeness/comforting. Inconsistent caregiving.

Disorganized-disoriented: Inconsistent responses (freeze, cry, resist); exhibit fear w/mother. Abusive caretaker or caretaker who has unresolved issues of being abused.
Attachment Research
Style at 12-18 months impacts behavior in school/preschool.

Kids can attach into later childhood.
Parenting Patterns (Baumrind)
1. Authoritarian: detached, less warm, controlling/punishing >"conflicted-irritable" kids w/more behavioral problems, moody, withdrawn, discontent.

Permissive: Value self expression/regulation.
a. Permissive-Indifferent: few limits, little monitoring, detached > poor self control, interpersonal problems, demanding
b. Permissive-Indulgent: Loving/available, few limits > impulsive, immature "impulsive-aggressive"

Authoritative: Caring/available;fair/firm/reasonable. Set limits, provide structure, reasonable expectations > competent, independent "energetic-friendly"
Working Mothers
leads to more egalitarian sex roles

middle class boys > slightly lower academic performance if in daycare vs. mother

lower class boys (and girls) do better in daycare

daycare > more socialability, but somewhat more aggression/disobedient
gay/lesbian parents
equally adjusted, same rates of homosexuality
single parents
lower level of achievment; may be due to SES
Gender Roles/Stages of Development (3)
Gender Roles: from birth-life, expectations of appropriate roles

Gender Identity: Self as male/female (18 mths [sense of self] - 3 yrs)

Gender Constancy: (age 5/6) Gender does not change w/dress or behavior
Gender Role Dev Theories
-Social Learning
-Cog Dev model
-Gender-Schema
-Psychoanalytic
Social Learning: Modeling

Cognitive-Dev Model: Cog concept becomes more clear. Kohlberg: Motivation to be "good/proper boys/girls". Criticism: gender roles appear w/in 1st 2 yrs of life

Gender Schema Theory*: Most favored, create schemas based on cog schema (wants to fit in that schema) and reward/modeling.

Psychoanalytic: Guilt based on Oedipus complex, identification w/same sex parent.
Development of Racial Awareness
Aware of differences at 3/4 yrs. Begin to prefer same race playmates.
Social Interaction - Levels of Social Play
1. Solitary
2. Parallel
3. Associative
4. Cooperative
1. Solitary: alone, differnt toys
2. Parallel: indpendent, similar toys
3. Associative: Shares, but does not adopt roles (acts independently
4. Cooperative: Part of group/common goal
Social Interaction: Cognitive Play:

1. Repetitive
2. Constructive
3. Imaginative
4. formal games w/rules
1. Repetitive: Rolling ball, simple movements.
2. Constructive Play: Builds something (blocks)
3. Imaginative: Fantasy/drama - try out new roles, master difficult feelings
4. Formal games w/rules: 7-11 yrs
Friendship and kids

gender differences

factors impacting popularity
same sex preference around 7-11

Girls: Quality of friends
Boys: Quantity

less popular: Less attractive, poor school performance, shyness
*Patterson's Coersion Model of Aggression
1. Learned aggression by observing parents, unknowing reinforcment.
2. conduct problems > peer rejection

3. Rejection leads to joining devient peer group
Delinquency and Boys and broken homes
unahppy intact homes lead to more delinquency/aggress than those from broken homes. possibly based on more neg contact w/father.
Bullying victim risk factors
Peer rejection
Submissive/crying behaviors
Bullying leads to:
future violent behavior in and outside home.
Teacher Interactions
More interaction w/males (may be critical interactions)

Expectations impact performance (rosenthal effect)

Girls praised for effort/cooperation, males for achievement
Cooperation Classrooms
Integrates children of different levels; better for low ability kids.

leads to reduction in cultural biasis/stereotypes
Montessori Schools
Max learning comes from manipulation of materials vs. rote learning.

Staggered ages in classrooms.
Adolescent Issues in Social Development (Marcia)
1. Identity Achievement
2. Forclosure
3. Moratorium
4. Identity Diffusion
1. Identity Achievement: Struggled with crisis and resolved, lead to committment

2. Forclosure: Commits w/out considering options (based on expectations). Absence of crisis

3. Moratorium: in crisis, no committment> Achievement

4. Identity Diffusion: Lost, no commitment to goals/values. Crisis/commitment absent.
Adolescence/Culture tidbits
AA sex earlier than hispanic/white

60% teens report condom use

STD higher in poor/minority grps

1/8 kids drop out of school

4/5 prison inmates are HS dropouts

drop outs 2xs more likely to be unemployed
Successful Aging:

Activity Theory

Disengagement THeory
Activity Theory: Old age is fullfuilling when active as long as possible

Disengagement Theory: Successful aging tied to graceful withdrawl from lifes activities (largely discredited)
Marital Satisfaction across lifespan
Curvilinear: High earl on, lower in child rearing years, higher after kids are through teens.
Women and aging:
lower income (lowest grp in us)
More friends than men, less stats and sex partners
Stages of Grief (4 stages)
1. Numbness
2. Yearning (anger/distress)
3. Disorganizaton/despair
4. Resolution/reorganization
Kubler Ross stages of dying:
DABDA
Denial
Anger
Bargening
Depression
Acceptance
Temperment - 3 categories
Easy (40%)

Difficult (10%)

Slow to warm up (15%)
Goodness of Fit - Temperment
Parenting style
Emotional Expression Stages
Infant: Distress, Content, Interest

6 months: joy, surprise, anger

7-9 months - smile/pout used to communicate

2 yrs: Embarrassment, empathy, envy
Social Referencing: Sharing affective states of parents
7-10 universal primary emotions.

Located in subcortical limbic system, develop prior to thought
Fear
anger
disgust
surprise
joy
shame
contempt
sadness interest.

love/remorse: require higher cortical processes
Most critical aspect of healthy development in adolescence
Self acceptance
Risk Factors in Pathology
Can be added to get sense (adversity index)
ex. Genes, poverty, access to care, maternal substance
Risk factors and Gender
boys more suseptable from prenatal - 10 yrs.

Girls more so in adolescents
Protective Factors (Garmezy)
Interpersonal view of protective factors:
personality
Supportive family
external support system