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459 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Piaget's Stage characterized by:
circular reactions
object permanence
mental representation
Piaget's Staget characterized by:
semiotic funciton
precausal/transductive reasoning
Piaget's Stage characterized by:
horizontal decolage
capable of mental operations
Concrete Operational
Piaget's Stage characterized by:
renewed egocentrism (personal fable, imaginary audience)
abstract reasoning
Formal Operational
Magical Reasoning and Animism are a part of which of Piaget's stages?
(occur as result of transductive reasoning)
At what age does Mental representation develop?
18-24 months
At what age does object permanence dx?
8-12 months
What is horizontal decolage?
gradual dx of skills (e.g., conservation)
Results in inconsistency in an ability
A child's relationship with his teacher is part of which of Bronfenbrenner's levels?
Impact of parents fighting on child's behavior at school is part of which of Bronfenbrenner's stages?
Impact of the school board or mass media on child's fxing is part of which of Bronfenbrenner's stages?
Impact of political/cultural beliefs on child's fxining is part of which of Bronfenbrenners' stages?
Language acquisition is due to biological mechanisms; Language dx is universal
Nativist (Chomsky)
Gender differences in language
Boys: try to establish dominance, gain attention, or give orders; men talk longer, interrupt more
Girls: language provides support, demonstrates attentiveness; women more likely ask questions
Piaget's Stage of Moral Dx in which children exhibit little concern for rules
Premoral (<6)
Piaget's Stage of Moral Dx in which children believe rules are set by authority figures; focus is on consequences
Heteronomous (7-10)
Piaget's Stage of Moral Dx in which children focus on intent of actor and realize rules are aribtaryr and can be changed
Autonomous (11+)
Kohlberg's Stage of Moral Dx in which children focus on gaining approval of others and on gaining rewards
Preconventional (<10)
Kohlberg's Stage of Moral Dx in which children focus on gaining approval of others; judgments are based on rules established by authority figures
Conventional (10-late adol)
Kohlberg's Stage of Moral Dx in which children focus on democratically det'd laws; moral action based on universal ethical principles
Postconventional (late adol)
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
Trust v. Mistrust (infancy)
Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt (toddler)
Initiative v. Guilt (early childhood)
Industry v. Inferiority (school age)
ID v. Role Confusion (adolescence)
Intimacy v. Isolation (young adult)
Generativity v. Stagnation (mid-adult)
Ego Integrity v. Despair (old age)
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Oral (0-1)
Anal (1-3)
Phallic (3-6)
Latnecy (6-12)
Gential (12+)
Parenting style linked with children who are:
irritable, aggressive, dependent, low self-esteem, academic underachvmnt
Parenting style linked with children who are:
assertive, self-confident, socially responsible, achvmnt oriented
Parenting style linked with children who are:
impulsive, self-centered, easily frustrated, low achvmnt/independence
Parenting style linked with children who are:
impulsive, moody, aggressive, low self-esteem
What predicts dx of conscience for children who are fearful/anxious?
Gentle discipline (control with reasoning, suggestion, reinforcement)
What predicts dx of conscience for children who are fearful/ NON-anxious?
Secure attachment
What type of parenting style is predictive of school success?
Authoritative, but mediated by culture/ethnicity
(AA's are more strongly influenced by peers than parenting style)
Separation anxiety occurs at:
6-8 months, peaks at 14-18 months
Stranger Anxiety occurs at:
8-10 months through 2 years
Note: Natural part of dx, NOT linked to attachment/parenting style
In Strange Situation, children who get mildly upset, but seek contact when the mother returns, are:
Securely Attached
In Strange Situation, children who are very disturbed by absence but who become angry or resist physical contact when mother returns, are:
Insecure- Ambivalent/Resistant
In Strange Situation, children who show little distress by their mothers' absence and run away or ignore her when she returns are:
Insecure- Avoidant
In Strange Situation, children who are fearful of caregivers and demonstrate confused facial expressions, are:
Mothers who are: moody, inconsistent in their caregiving will have children with what type of attachment?
Insecure- Ambivalent/Resistnat
Mothers who are: impatient/unresponsive OR provide too much stimulation will have children with what type of attachment?
Insecure- Avoidant
Mothers who are abusive will have children with what type of attachment?
Treatments for Reducing aggression in children include:
-Social Skills Training, with focus on teaching alt ways for dealing with anger
-Parent Mgmnt Training: designed to stop coercive interactions in family
-Cognitive Training: teach boys that aggression hurts, doesn't solve probs, and can be handles in diff way
Adolescent drug use is linked to:
alientation, impulsivity, distress
Adolescent drug experimentation linked to:
peer pressure
Instrumental Abuse
brutal, dangerous, occurs with little provocation

Tx: make sure couple is physically separated, provide separate tx
Expressive Abuse
occurs within the context of escalating conflict

Tx: have couple sign a no violence contract, provide joint tx
By what age do children understand that death is a universal, biolgical process?
age 10
Note: newer research suggests much earlier, like around 5.5
At what age doe children understand death is irreversible, but tend to personify it?
5-9 years old
At what age do children describe themselves in terms of specific behaviors?
2-6 years old
At what age do children describe themselves in terms of physical competencies ("I'm good at...")
7-8 years old
At what age do children describe themselves in terms of personality traits?
10-12 years old
GAF Score of 21-30
-unable to fxn in almost all areas
-serious impairment in communicaiton/judgment
GAF Score of 31-40
-major impairment in several areas of fxning
-impairments in reality testing or communication
GAF Score of 41-50
-serious impairment in fxing (e.g., no friends)
-serious sx's (e.g., suicidal ideation)
GAF Score of 51-60
-moderate impairment in fxining
-moderate sx's
Brain abnormalities associated with:
-reduced cerebellum
-enlarged ventricles
-abnormal basal ganglia, frontal lobes
NT abnormalites assoc'd with autism
-serotonin, norepeinehprine, dopamine
Brain abnormalities associated with:
-low activity in frontal cortex and basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra)
-small caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, prefrontal cortex
Basal Ganglia is comprised of:
Striatum (putamen & caudate nucleus)
Globus Pallidus
Suthalamic Nucleus
Substantia Nigra
NT abnormalities assoc's with Tourettes
Eleveated dopamine
Brain abnormalities associated with:
basal ganglia and frontal lobe
NT abnormalities associated with:
low Ach
Causes of Impotence
-psychological factors
-diabetes mellitus
-liver/kidney disease
Brain abnormalities associated with:
-enlarged ventricles
-small hippocampus, amygdala, globus pallidus
-decreased activity in prefrontal cortex
NT abnormalities associated with:
-increased dopamine
-Increased norepinephrine, serotonin
-decreased GABA, glutamate
Dopamine Hypothesis
Elevated dopamine linked to schizophrneia
Catelcholamine Hypothesis
Decrease norepinephrine/dopamine linked to Deression
Indolamine Hypothesis
Decreased serotonin linked to Depression
Etiology of Depression
-decreased norepinephrine/dopamine
-decreases serotonin
-elevated corisol
-lack of cell growth in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus
Selgiman's Learned Helplenss theory of depression
internal, stable, global attributions
Rehm's Self Control Model of Depression
-attend most to negative events and immediate outcomes
-make inaccurate attributions, stringent self-evalations
-low self-reinforcement/ high self-punishment
Beck's Cognitive Triad theory of depression
Negative/illogical statements about oneself, world and future
Concordance Rates for Schizophrenia:
Concordance Rates for Schizophrenia:
Concordance Rates for Schizophrenia:
Fraternal Twins
Concordance Rates for Schizophrenia:
Identical Twins
Concordance Rates for Bipolar Disorder:
Identical Twins
Concordance Rates for Bipolar Disorder:
Fraternal Twins
Mowrer's 2-factor Theory of Phobias
Phobias dx as result of avoidance conditioning, which is a combo of classical and operant conditioning
NT abnormality assoc'd with OCD
Decreased serotonin
Brain abnormality assoc'd with OCD
overactive caudate nucleus
fabrication of events/facts to compensate for memory loss
Indirect, delayed speech due to unnecssary details or parenthetical remarks
-Common in OCD, schizoprhenia
Loosening of Assocations
loss of point of speech
digressing to irrelevant topics
(In extreme form, becomes loosening of associations)
Prognosis of schizophrenia associated with:
-acute, late onset
-good premorbid adjustment
-family hx of mood disorder
-brief active phase
-insight into illness
-No hx of attention disorder
Psychotic Sx's present for 1-6 months
Schizophreniform D/O
Nonbizarre/plausible delusions for 1+ month
Delusional D/O
Prominant Mood Sx's + psychotic sx's
Schizoaffective D/O
Postpartum depression occurs in:
10-15% of women
Postpartum blues occurs in:
50-80% of women
Rates for suicide:
Highest for what group?
When are rates similar for AA and Wh males?
for Wh males, at what age does sharp increase occur?
-highest among Wh males
-Rates for Wh and AA males similar in adol and early adulthood
-For Wh males, rates rise slowly until 65, then sharp increase for remainder of lifespan
For AA males, when is highest rate of suicide?
between 20-24
Most prevalent disorders linked to adolescent suicide
Affective D/O
Conduct D/O
Antisocial Personality D/O
Substance Abuse
-disturbance in consciousness (decreased attn, awareness)
-changes in cognition (memory loss, disorientation, impaired language)
-perceptual abnormalities (illusions, hallucinations)
Delirium v. Dementia
Which dex's within hours-days?
Delirium v. Dementia
Which has slow, progressive deficits?
Primary memory deficits associated with:

Less subtle deficits in...?
-Primary defiicits in episodic memory
-Subtle deficits in semantic memory (which leads to impaired verbal production)
-gradual onset, slow, progressive decline
Memory deficits associated with:
Vascular dementia
-cognitive impairment
-focal neurological impairment
-stepwise, fluctuating course
-patchy sx's
Memory deficits associated with:
-1st: forgetful, inattentive, slow processing
-Then: difficulty w/ problem solving and concentration, apathy, social w/d, tremor, clumsiness
-Finally: slowness, depression, anxiety
Memory deficits associated with:
dementia due to head trauma or subcortical dementia
-effects cognition, emotion, memory
Memory deficits associated with:
cortical dementia
aphasia and other langauge impairments
Memory deficits associated with:
Amnestic Disorder (e.g., Korsakoff's)
disproportionate memory deficits compared to other cognitive impairments
Memory deficits associated with:
-abrupt onset
-Impairments in procedural and recall
-Recognition memory intact!
Deficits associated with:
Dementia (in general)
-Cognitive Deficits (memory impairment in recall/recognition, & declarative memory)
-Aphasia, apraxia, agnosia
-impaired executive fxning
Rates of depression
highest among married women

Women: highest among married and if 3+ children under 14yo
Men: lowest among married
Somatization Disorder
-Recurrent somatic complaints (including pain, GI, pseudoneurological)
-dramatic, overstated, ambigous
-seek multiple tx and procedures
Conversion Disorder
-Motor/Sensory Sx's that are NOT voluntarily produced
-sx's caused by psychological factors
-either overly dramatic/histrionic OR lack of concern for sx's
-May be for primary gain (keep internal conflict out of consc) or secondary gain (obtain support from envt)
-Intentionally produced sx's
-Goal is to adopt sick role
-overly dramatic but vague, inconsistenter
Factitious Disorder
-intentinally produced sx's
-Goal is to obtain external reward (e.g., avoid work, get financial compensation)
-exagg'd sensitivity to rejection
-distort experiences, misinterpret others actions as hostile
-stubborn, argumentative about beliefs
Paranoid Personality Disorder
-indifference to relationships
-restricted range of emtional expression
-prefers to be alone; doesnt enjoy relat's
-indifference to praise
Shizoid Personality Disorder
-pervasive social/interpersonal deficits
-eccentricities in cognition/affect
-social anxiety (want to be with people, but act in way that excludes others)
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
-disregard for social norms/rules
-indifference to rights/feelings of others
Antisocial Personality Disorder
-emotional dysregulation
-extreme B&W thinking
-turbulent relationhsips
Bordeline Personality Disorder
-excessive emotional expression (dramatic, enthusiastic)
-attention seeking
-need for approval
-inappropriate seductiveness, flirtatiousness
Histrionic Personality Disorder
-extreme focus on self
-grandiose, entitled
-preoccupied with fantasises of sucess, power
-believe self to be "special" or "unique"
-requires excessive admiration
-lack of empathty
-takes advantage of others for own needs
Narcissitic Personality Disorder
-pervaisve pattern of social inhibition
-feeling of indaquency, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation
-believe self to be inept/unappealing
-avoid social intxns for fear of being ridiculed, humiliated
Avoidant Personality Disorder
-dependent on others
-difficulty making decisions on own
-difficulty expressing disagreement
-lack of self-confidence
-seeks nurturance/support from others, even to point of doing things that are unpleasant
-fear of being alone
Dependent Personality Disorder
-inflexibility, striving for perfection (interferes with task completion)
-rigid conformity to rules, lists
-devotion to work/productivity
-overconsientious, inflexibile about morals
-can't delegate
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
Systematic desensitization and Behavioral Sex therapy are absed on:
(which is type of classical cond'g)
In Vivo Aversion tx and Covert sensitization are based on:
Aversive counterconditioning
(which is type of classical cond'g)
Flooding, Implosive tx, graduated exposure, and EMDR are based on:
Classical Extinction
(which is type of classical cond'g)
Shaping, Premack principle, and differential reinforcement are based on:
(Operant cond'g)
Reprimands, overcorrection, response cost, and time out are based on:
(Operant cond'g)
What are the 4 sources of self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura)?
1-past accomplishments
2-observation of others
3-verbal persuasion
4-logical verification
Acquisiton of complex behaviors in classical cond'g:
higher order conditioning
Acquisiton of complex behaviors in operant cond'g
What type of CBT attempts to alter irrational beliefs about an event?
REBT (Ellis)
Therapists who use REBT are:
educational, confrontative, persuasive
What type of CBT focuses on automatic thoughts and cognitive distortions?
dogmatic demands, awfulizing, low frustration tolerance, and negative evaluations are examples of:
Irrational Beliefs (Ellis)
aribtary inference
selective abstraction
polarized thinking
emotional reasoning

are examples of:
Beck's cognitive distortions
Beck's Cognitive Triad consists of ________ and is associated with ________
-negative view of self, world, future
Beck viewed anxiety as:
excessive form of normal survival mechanisms
-unrealistic fears about physical/psychological threats
collaborative empiricism is assoc'd with:
Use of socratic questioning is assoc's with:
Structural/Drive theory
Focus on style of life
Focus on conscious and peronal/collective unconcsious
For Jung, libido =
general psychic energy
For Freud, libido =
sexual/aggressive energy
Focus on internalized representations of relationships with others
Object Relations
For Freud, phobia =
-neurotic anxiety
-a perception of danger from forbidden instict
-when expressed externally, escape unconscious
Normal Autism occurs at what age? and refers to what?
0-1 month
oblivious to external envt
Noramal Symbiosis occurs at what age? and refers to what?
2-3 months
infant fused with mother and does not differentiate between I and not-I
Separation-Individuation occurs at what age? and refers to what?
4 months
-sensory then physical exploraiton of envt
-conflict between independence and dependence, which results in separation anxiety
Object Constancy occurs at what age and refers to what?
3 years
-permanent sense of self; able to perceive others as both separate and related
Focus on self-actualization
Person-centered (Rogers)
Conditions of worth are associated with:
Rogers' person-centered tx
What are Rogers' 3 Facilitative Conditions:
1-unconditional positive regard
3-acurate empathic understanding
view of neurotic bx as growth disorder that involves abandonment of self for self-image?
Gestalt Tx
Boundary disturbances (introjection, projection, retroflection, confluence) are associated with:
Gestalt Tx
Th's from which school view transference as couterproductive?
Gestalt tx
Empty chair and Top Dog/Underdog are associated with:
Gestalt tx
-Focus on depersonalization, loneliness, isolation
-view people in constant state of becoming
Existential Tx
For Gestalt Th's, the primary curative factor is:
awareness (full understanding of thoughts, feelings, actions in here and now)
View of therapy as authentic , collaborative, egalitrian relationship
Person Centered (Rogers)
Goal of therapy is to provide support & acceptance and to restore ability to relate to others in meaninful way
Object Relations tx
Success/Failure ID associated with:
Glasser (Reality Tx)
Belief that individual's should suffer ntaural consequences for their actions
Glasser (Reality Tx)
emphasize Ct's ability to judge what is right/wrong about daily life
Glasser (Reality Tx)
Teach Ct's specific behaviors to fulfill their needs
Glasser (Reality Tx)
Goal of tx is:
-sx reductin
-improve interpersonal fxing
Stage of change where individual has little insight into need for change, does not intent to change?
aware of need for change, ready to change in next 6 months
Clear intent to take action within next month
Begins to take steps to bring about change
Behavior change has lasted for 6 months; take steps to prevent relapse
Focus on narcissism, which occurs when normal dx of self is interrupted by unempathic responses by mother
Self Psychology (Kohut)
Type of Q designed to explore recurrent family patterns and interconnectedness between family members
Type of Q designed to ID family problems
Type of Q designed to foster change
Type of Q designed to foster reflection so new options can be ID'd
View of Sx's as result of dysfunctional communication patterns
Interaction Family Tx
Use of Direct (pointing out problematic interactions) and Paradoxical (prescribing the sx, reframing) Techniques
Interaction Family Tx
View of Th as expert/coach
Bowen/Extended Family Systems
Sessions are educative/cognitive, controlled; partners talk to Th, not each other
Bowen/Extended Family Systems
Use of questioning to diffuse emotional and help Ct's think clearly about problems
Bowen/Extended Family Systems
Here-and-now, directive, concrete approach
Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
Focus on boundaries, power hierarchies, and subsystems within a family system
Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
3 Rigid Triads
Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
-Stable Coalition
View of dysfuntion as resulting from inflexible family structure that prevents them from adapting to stressors
Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
Use of Joining (when Th. blends with family to develop position of leadership)
Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
Use of family map to make structural dx
Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
Enactment and Reframing are techniques used by who for what puprose?
-Structural Family Tx (Minuchin)
-to deliberately unbalance the family's homeostasis
View of Mal Bx: communication as means of control in a relationship
Straegic Family Tx (Haley)
Use of paradoxical interventions (Ordeal, restraining, positioning, reraming prescribing the sx)
Straegic Family Tx (Haley)
Therapist has active, take charge role, with first session being most important (includes social stage, problem stage, interaction stage, and goal-setting)
Straegic Family Tx (Haley)
Goal of Tx: alleviate current sx's through altering family's transactions and organization (esp. hierarchies and generational boundaries)
Straegic Family Tx (Haley)
Focus on circular patterns of actions and reactions
Milan Systemic Family Tx
Goal of Tx: to help family members understand their relationships and problems in alt ways, so can see new solutions and make new choices
Milan Systemic Family Tx
Use of Therapeutic team, who make hypotheses in first session
Milan Systemic Family Tx
View of Maladaptive Bx: family's patterns become so fixed that members cannot act creatively or make new choices
Milan Systemic Family Tx
Empahsize neutrality- remaining ally of ALL family members
Milan Systemic Family Tx
Use of Paradoxical Strategies (counterparadox and positive connotation) and Circular Q's
Milan Systemic Family Tx
Use of interpreteting transferences, resistances, and other factors to foster insight
Object Relations Family Tx
Therapeutic Factors in Group Tx (Yalom)
interpersonal input, catharsis, self-understanding, cohesiveness
Role of Th in Group Tx (Yalom)
-creating/maintaining group
-culture building (act as expert and participant/model)
-Activation and Illuminatino in Here and Now
Prevent new incidents of disorders from occurring
(e.g., Meals on Wheels, Prenatal Nutrition)
Primary Prevention
Early Detection / Screening
Prevent those already ID'd from getting more serious
(e.g., educational programs for those with LD)
Secondary Prevention
Prevent reoccurrence/worsening of disorders
Improving attitudes of others in community
(e.g., rehab programs)
Tertiary Prevention
Changing/adapting to envt by effecting changes in environment
Changing/adapting to envt by altering one's own behavior/response
Consult with individual to provide tx for a specific client
Focus on tx of Ct
Consultant acts as expert, and provides as much info as possible
Client-centered case consultation
Consult with individual to dx skills, knowledge, objectivity for a GROUP of Cts
Focus on Consultee's ability to treat
Consultee-centered case consultation
Focus on resolving specific problems within a program
Program-centered administrative consultation
Focus on improving personnel's ability to maintain a successful organization so can be more effective in future
Consultee-centered administrative consultation
Impact of matching ethnicity between Th-Ct
Increases duration of tx, but no effect on outcome
Findings not consistent for hispanics/asians
Tx Recommendations for AA's
-use multisystems or family tx
-problem-solving approach
-time ltd
Tx Recommendations for American Indians/Alaskan Natives
-combinatino of Ct-centered, collaborative, prob-solving and behavioral approaches
-Reaffirm values of their culture
-Focus in building trust/credibility
-Avoid highly directive approach
-incorporate elders/traditional healers
Tx Recommendations for Asians
-directive, structured, goal-oriented, problem-solving
-Focus on alleviating sx's
-Ct's expect concrete advice
-View Th as expert/authority figure
-emphasize formalism
-establish credibility early by disclosing information about educational background
-somatic complaints
Tx Recommendations for Hispanic/Latinos
-Active, directive
-Multimodlal approach that focuses on Ct's behavior, affect, cognitions, interpersonal relastinoships, biological fxining
-Family Tx
Multicultural Counselling Competence involves:
-Awareness: understanding of personal beliefs
-Knolwedge: understanding of world views of diverse Ct's
-Skills: actively practicing appropriate interventions for diverse Ct's
Recognition of racial/gender differences occurs by age:
2 years
Brown v. Board of Education based on:
racial segregation lead to poor self-image (based on AA's preference for Wh dolls)
Influence of examiner race on IQ testing
Mixed results: Wh examiners MAY have negative impact on test scores of AA's in some situations
Level of acculturation assoc'd with:
maintainig own culture but incorporating aspects of dominant culture
Integration / Biculturalism
Level of acculturation assoc'd with:
accepting majority culture while relinquishing own culture
Level of acculturation assoc'd with:
withdrawal from dominant culture and accpetance of own culture
Level of acculturation assoc'd with:
not identifying with either own culture OR dominant culture
Atkinson, Morton, Sue:
positive attitude toards dominant culture, but rejects own culture
Conformity Stage
Atkinson, Morton, Sue:
-confusion over conflicting attitudes about self/others
-perceive problems as related to racial ID
Atkinson, Morton, Sue:
-actively reject dominant culture
-appreciation for own culture
-view probs as related to oppression
Atkinson, Morton, Sue:
-uncertain about rigid beliefs
-conflicted about feelings of loyalty to own culture and autonomy
Atkinson, Morton, Sue:
-feelings of self-fulfillment towards racial ID
-multicutural perspective
-objective about beliefs
Integrative Awareness
Atkinson, Morton, Sue
Stages of Racial/Cultural ID
Integrative Awareness
Black Racial ID Dx
White ID Dx
Cross / Black Racial ID Dx:
-racial ID has low salience
-Whites are ideal, AA's denigrated
-internalized racism
Cross / Black Racial ID Dx:
-exposure to one race-related incident increases racial awareness
-dx interest in AA ID
Cross / Black Racial ID Dx:
-struggle between old/emerging ideas about race
-initially idealize AA's and denigrate Wh's
-move towards internalization of new ID
Cross / Black Racial ID Dx:
-adapt AA world view, where strive to eliminate racism
-health cultural paranoia exhibited
Helms / White ID Dx
-little awareness of racial ID
-may exhibit racism
Helms / White ID Dx
-increasing contact with minorities increases awareness of being White
-may overidentify with AA's or retreat into Wh society
Helms / White ID Dx
-Attempt to resolve conflict by accepting racist views
Helms / White ID Dx
-experience personally jarring event
-begin to Q racist views
-recognize that Wh's have responsibilty for racism
Helms / White ID Dx
-explore what it means to be white
Helms / White ID Dx
-internalize non-racist Wh ID
-appreciation for multicultural differences
Treatment for Stuttering
Habit Reversal: regulate breathing and awareness training
Social Support
Treatment for CD
most effective when target preadolescents, and include family intervention
Treatment of Tourette's
(Halporidol, Pimozide)
Treamtne of Enuresis
Bell and Pad + behavioral reversal/overcorrection
Imipramine (but relapse when d/c'd)
Treatment of Substance Dependence
covert sensitization; aversion tx
social skills training
coping skills
Relapse Prevention Program: bx and cog techniques to deal with envts that elicit negative emotions
Treatment of Classic Depression (vegetative sx's, worse sx's in am, acute onset, short duration)
Treatment of Melancholic Depression
SSRIs (Less side effects than TCA's)
Treatment of Atypical Depression
(phobic, panic attacks, increased appetite, hypersomnia)
Treatment of Dysthymic Disorder
Combinatino of antidepressant and IPT or CBT
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder
Antiseizure meds (carbamazepine, divalproex sodium)
Treatment of BPD
-group skills training
-individual outpt
-telephone consultation
Treamtent of Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder
In vivo exposure with response prevention
Cognitive Tx, relaxation tx
TCA's, SSRI's, Anxiolytics
Treatment of Fear of Dark
Cogntiive self-control (visualization, relaxation, positive self-statements)
Treatment of Social Phobia
Exposure + SST
Propranol (to reduce somatic complaints)
Treatment of OCD
-Exposure with response prevention + SSRI (esp. clomipramine)
-Thought stopping
-NOTE: drugs alone high relapse when d/c'd
Treatment of PTSD
CBT with exposure, cognitive restructuring, anxiety mgmt + SSRI
Treatment of GAD
Multicomponent CBT + SSRI or anxiolytic
Relaxation training
Treatment of paraphilias
Covert Sensitization + satiation tx
Goal: to establish more desirable behaviors
Treatment of Anorexia
CBT to modify cognitive errors/beliefs
Treatment of Bulimia
-CBT with self-monitoring, stimulus control, cog restructuring, prob solving, self-distraction
-Imipramine & Fluoxetine used for binging/purging
Effects of Aging on Memory
-Recent LTM most affected (due to less encoding)
-Working Memory affected (due to reduced processing speed)
-Episodic memory MORE affected than semantic/procedural
-Remote LTM, memory span, and sneosry memory UNAFFECTED
-Metamemory somewhat affected (overestimate difficulty of memory tasks, but are just as accurate at estimating their ability to recall new info)
Brain structure assoc'd with:
encoding, storal, retrieval of LT memory
Temporal Lobes
Brain structure assoc'd with:
-consolidation of LT memory
-Spatial memory
-explicit memory
Brain structured linked to memory loss due to normal aging and Alzheimers'
Brain structure assoc'd with:
adding emotional significance to memories
Brain structure assoc'd with:
-STM, esp working memory
-episodic memory
-prospective memory
Prefrontal Cortex
Brain structure assoc'd with:
-processing infomration and transferring it to neocortex
Damage to the thalamus is assoc'd with:
amnesia, confabulation
Brain structure assoc'd with:
-procedural memory
-Implicit memory
basal ganglia, cerebellum, motor cortex
Dopamine is involved in:
regulation of movement
reinforcing action of drugs
NT assoc'd with Parkinson's
degeneration of dopamine in substantia nigra
Excess Dopamine assoc'd with:
Serotonin is involved in:
mood, hunger, temperature regulation, sexual activity, arousal, sleep, aggression, migraines
GABA is involved in:
sleeping, eating, seizures, anxiety disorders
Glutamate is involved in:
-Learning and memory
-seizures (when excess activity)
Catelcholamines are involved in:
personality, mood, memory, sleep
NT associated with Huntington's Disorder
degeneratino of GABA-secreting cells in basal ganglia
Elevated levels of Serotonin linked to:
Low Levels of Serotonin linked to:
Abnormal levels of GABA linked to:
Anxiety Disorders
Abnormal levels of Dopamine linked to:
Depression (Low)
Schizophrenia & Tourette's (High)
Basal Ganglia are involved in:
-planning/organization of movement
-sensorimotor learning
-expression of emotion
Hypothalamus is involved in:
-maintains homeostasis
-mediates sleep-wake cycle
Reticular Activating System
-regulates consciousness, arousal, and wakefulness
-screens sensory input and arouses brain when information needs to be processed
Anterior Cingulate Cortex
-connects L-R hemispheres
-involved in emotinal reactino to pain
-involved in early learning and prob solving
Brain Stem consists of:
Medulla & Pons
Medulla- regualtes breathing, heartbeat, swallowing, coughing
Pons- connects 2 halves of cerebellum; integration of L-R movement
Damage to which lobe produces:
-personality changes
-deficits in higher order cog fxns
-reponse inhibition
-loss of fine motor movement
-altered sexual bx
-impaired social bx
Frontal Lobe
Damage to which lobe produces:
-imapired spatial orientation
-Somatosensory agnosia/tactile agnosia
-Gerstman's Syndrome
-Contralateral neglect
Parietal Lobe
Damage to which lobe produces:
-auditory agnosia/hallucinations
-Wernicke's aphasia
-disturbances in personality/affect
-changes in sexual activity
Temporal Lobe
Damage to which lobe produces:
-visual agnosia
-cotical blindness
-visual hallucinations
Occiptal Lobe
Lesions to which two lobes produce prosopagnosia
Occipital and Temporal
(parietal may also be involved)
Functions of Frontal Lobe
-abstract thinking
-executive functions
-speech/language production
Functions of Parietal Lobe
-integrating sensory input
-Pressure, temperature, pain, proprioception, gustation
-Spatial Orientation/awareness
Functions of Temporal Lobe
-encoding, retrieval, and storage of LT
-hearing, auditory procesing
-adding affective tone to sensory input
Functions of Occipital Lobe
-visual perception, recognition, memory
Visual Agnosia
inability to recognize familiar objects
Aperceptive Visual Agnosia
can't name object when see it, but can when placed in hand
Associative visual agnosia
recognize familiar objects, but can't name it
Surface Dyslexia
can't read owrds with irregular spelling; poor comprehension
Deep Dyslexia
Semantic paralexia (substitute words of similar meanings)
Pure Alexia
Cant read any written words
Word blindness
Literal Alexia
can read words but not letters
Gerstman's Syndrome
L-R Disorientation
Finger agnosia

Results from damage to Left Parietal Lobe
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
emtions represent perceptions of bodily reactions
"You're afriad b/c you're heart is pumping and knees are shaking"
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
emphasizes brain mechanisms that mediate emotions;
emotions/bodily reactions occur simultaneously
Schacter-Singer 2-Factor Theory of Emotions
subjective experience of emotions is consequence of physiological reaction AND cognitive interpretations of arousal
Brain structure involved in translation of emotions into physical responses
Lesions in amygdala produce:
lack of response in emotinally-charged situations
Damage to hypothalamus produces:
rage response OR
uncontrollable laughter
Causes of stroke
-thrombosis (blocked artery by blood clot)
-embolism (blcoked artery from other part of bloodstream)
Types of Generalized Seizures
1) Tonic-clonic (grand mal)
2) Absence (Petit Mal)
Types of Partial Seizures
1) Simple (No loss of consciousness)
2) Compex (altered consciousness)
Sx's of DT's
delirium, delusions, hallucinations, agitated bx, autonomic hyperactivity
Sx's of Korsakoff's Syndrome
severe anterograde amnesia, confabulation
Sx's of dementia due to alcoholism
impaired v-s skills, but intact verbal skills
Side Effects of TCAs
-sexual SE's
-Orthostatic hypotension
-confusion, drowsiness, fatigue

Lethal in OD
Side Effects of SSRI's
-orthostatic hypotension
-Sexual SE's
-GI Sx's

LESS cardiotoxic, less cog impairment than TCA's
Side Effects of MAOI's
-hypertensive crisis
-weight gain
-headache, dizziness
Side Effects of Buproprion (Wellbutrin)
-may aggravate psychosis

LESS cardiotoxic, less anticholinergic
NO sexual SE's
Side Effects of Effexor
increase BP

Less OD, faster onset
Side Effects of Nefazadone
Side Effects of Trazadone
orthostatic hypotension
Side Effects of ECT
-patchy anterograde amnesia x 3-6 months
-retrograde amnesia for few months prior
Side Effects of Lithium
Initial (subside within weeks): nausea, fine hand tremor, polyuria/dipsia
More dangerous: diarrhea, vomiting, sedation, slurred speech, confusion, corase tremor, loss of coordination
Side Effects of Anticonvulsants
dizziness, ataxia, visual disturbances, anorexia, nausea, rash
--> toelrance dx's quickly
Also risk for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia
Side Effects of Traditional Antipsychotics
-Extrapyramidal (parkinsonism ,akathisia, tardive dyskinesia)
Side Effeccts of Atypical Antipsychotics
-lowered seizure threshold

LESS likely to cause extrapyramidal SE's
Chlorpromazine (Thorzine)
Fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin)
Thioxanthene (Narvane)
Butyrophenone/Haloperidol (Haldol)
Traditional Antipsychotics
Dibenzodiazapene (Clozapine)
benxisoxazole (Resperidone)
Thienobenzodiazapene (Olanzapine)
Dibenzothiazapene (Quetiapine)
Atypical Antipsychotics
Side Effects of Barbituraes
-slurred speech
-impaired motor/cog fxing
-decreased REM sleep

In OD:
-repsiratory depression
Side Effects of Benzodiazapenes
-drowsiness, lethargy
-slurred speech, disorientation/confusion
-Impaired psychomotor ability
-Paradoxical Excitation
-Increased app/wt gain
-skin rash
-blood dyscracia
-impaired sexual fxning
-sleep disturbance
-anterograde amnesia
Abrupt withdrawal of BZ's
causes hyperexcitability, which can be accompanied by seizures, depersonalization, panic, stroke
Which anxiolytic does NOT cause sedation?
Buspar (Azapirone)
Opiod OD/Toxicity
-slow/shallow breathing
-muscle rigidity
-clammy skin
-decreased BP/pulse
Opiod Withdrawal
-stomach cramps
-nausea, vomiting
-muscle/joint pain
Threats to Internal Validity
(Can't say if realtionship between DV and IV is real or due to other factors)
-Statistical Regression
Threats to External Validity
(Limits generalizability)
-pretest sensitization
-Interaction between Selection/Treatment
-Multiple Treatment Interference
Pretest sensitization is controlled by:
Solomon Four Group Design
Multiple tx interference is controlled by:
Counterbalanced design (e.g., Latin Square design)
Types of Single Subject Designs
Reversal (ABAB)
Multiple baseline
Changing Criterion Design
Types of Within Subjects / Repeated Measures Designs
-Time Series
-Interrupted Time Series
-Latin Squares / Counterbalanced
Types of Between Groups Design
-Randomized Block
-Cross Sectional
-Solomon Four Group Design
Which research design measures effects of DV at regular intervals (before and after tx)?
Time Series
Which research design measures the DV before and after tx for a single group?
Interrupted Time Series
Which research design applies different levels of the IV in different order to different groups?
Counterbalanced/ Latin Squares
Which research design looks at main and interaction effects?
Factorial Deisgn
Which reearch design looks at 2+ IV's?
Factorial Design
Which research design divides sample into homgoenous blocks and randomly assigns blocks to different levels of the IV?
Randomized block
Which research design assess the effects of the IV on different age groups?
Cross Sectional
Which research design measures effects of pretesting on the DV in a between groups design?
Solomon Four Group Design
Which correlation coeff do you use when:
both variables are interval/ratio
Pearson's R
Which correlation coeff do you use when:
both variables are rank-ordered
Spearman's Rho
Which correlation coeff do you use when:
Both variables are true dichotomy
Which correlation coeff do you use when:
1 variable = ordinal (true dichotomy)
1 variable = Interval/Ratio
Point Biserial
Which correlation coeff do you use when:
1 variable = Artifical Dichotomy
1 variable = Interval/Ratio
Which correlation coeff do you use when:
both variables are interval/ratio, and relationship is non-linear
Which technique do you use for prediction when:
2+ continuous/discrete predictors
1 continuous criterion
Multiple Regression
Which technique do you use for prediction when:
2+ continuous/discrete predictors
2+ continous criterion
Canonical Correlation
Which statistic do you use to analyze frequency of S's on one nominal variable?
Single Sample Chi Square / Goodness of Fit
Which statistic do you use to analyze frequency data on 2+ variables?
Mult Sample Chi Square / Chi Square for Cotingency Tables
Inferential statistics for Ordinal Data
-Mann Whitney U Test
-Wilcoxam Matched pairs
Which stat do you use when:
compare sample mean to population mean
t-test for single sample
Which stat do you use when:
compare mean scores of 2+ groups
t-test for ind/correlated samples
Which stat do you use when:
compare 2+ levels of IV
1-way ANOVA
Which stat do you use when:
compare 2+ IV's, and DV is interval/ratio
Factorial ANOVA
Which stat do you use when:
need to remove effects of confounding variable
Which stat do you use when:
2+ DV's
Which stat do you use when:
group has been blocked to control for confounding variable
Randomized Block ANOVA
Which stat do you use when:
using within-S's design where different levels of IV are sequentially admin's
Repeated Measures ANOVA
Which stat do you use when:
mixed design is used
Mixed (Split Plot) ANOVA
Which stat do you use when:
want to determine of there's a linear or non-linear trend between IV and DV
Trend Analysis
Ways to maximize Statistical Power
-increase alpha
-increase sample size
-increase effect size
-minimize error
-use 1-tailed test
probability of Type I error- reject true null
probability of Type II error - retain false null
Why is it better to use an ANOVA over a t-test?
-helps control experimentwise error rate by decreasing prob of making type I error
Types of Reliability
Test Retest
Alternate Forms
Internal Consistency
Inter Rater
Internal Consistency (2 types)
Split half
Kuder-Richardson 20 (for dichotomously scored items)
Spearman Brown formula is used with:
Split Half Reliability, which underestimates reliability
To increae reliability:
-use longer test
-decrease prob of guessing
-increase range of scores
-increase heterogeneity of S's
-increase differentiation of items
Types of Validity
Content Validity
Construct Validity
Internal Validity
Differential Validity
ability to conclude that there is a causal relationship between IV and DV
Internal Validity
degree to which a test can accurately predict performance on one dimesnion to excusion of others
Differential Validity
test adequately samples content of behvior domain designed to measure
Content Validity
teast measures hypothetical trait designed to measure
Construct Validity
When heterotrait-monomethod is low
test has discriminant validity
Test estimates/predicts S's performance on external criterion
Criterion-related validity
Test increases correct decisions that can be expected if the predicotr is used
Incremental Validity
Communality is:
-the total amount of variability accounted for in a test by the identified factors
-the amount of variance that the test has in common with other measures in the factor analysis
-amount acct'd for by multiple factors in a single variable
A high score on which MMPI scale suggests:
lack of insight, denial, attempt to present self in favorable light
L (Lie) Scale
A high score on which MMPI scale suggests:
eccentricity, random responding, respond to ALL items as T or F
F (Frequency) Scale
A high score on which MMPI scale suggests:
desire to fake good
clinical defensiveness
K (Correction)
A high score on which MMPI scale suggests:
reading difficulties
Cannot Say (?) Scale
A low socre on which MMPI scale suggests:
frankness, exaggeration of negative char's, tendency to answer F
L (Lie) Scalle
A low socre on which MMPI scale suggests:
excessive frankness, self-criticism
desire to fake bad
acute physiol distress
K (Correction) Scale
Concordance Rates of IQ:
ID twins reared together
Concordance Rates of IQ:
ID twins reared apart
Concordance Rates of IQ:
bio sibs reared together
Concordance Rates of IQ:
unrelated indiv's reared together
Clinical v. Actuarial Predictions
Clinical: based on judgment of decision maker
Actuarial: use empirically derived data/techniques
Actor-observer effect
Tendency to attribute own behaviors as situational
Self-Serving Bias
Tendency to attirbute OWN bx as situational when consequences are negative, but as dispositional when conseq's are positive
Fundamental Attribution Bias
Tendency to overestimate role of dispositional factors and underestimate situational factors in attributions of others
Self-Perception theory (Bem)
people identify their own internal states by observing external bx's of others or context
Social inhibition/faciliation
Presence of others:
-inhibits performance on complex/unfamiliar tasks
-facilitates performance on simple/well-learned tasks
Attitude change and fear
High levels of fear are most effective for inducing change, as long as provide information about what actions to take to minimize or avert dangerous conseq's
When does persuasion occur through Central Route?
when message is interesting, important, or personally relevant
person is in neutral/slightly negative mood
When does persuasion occur through Peripheral Route?
when message is uninteresting/irrelvant
person is in positive mood
Central Route of Persuasion depends on:
quality of argument
Peripheral Route of Persuasion depends on:
quantity of message and presence of persuasive cues
Need for personal space predicted by:
Male gender
small room
discussiong of embarassing topic
expectation of long interaction
Types of Relative Rating Scales
-compare performance of 2+ employees
1-paired comparison
2-forced distribution
Types of Absolute Measure Rating Scales
critical incident technique
forced choice
graphic rating scale
ipsative measure
an individual's performance on a scale is scored in terms of relative status on the scales
Incremental Validity
ability of a test/measure to increase decision-making accuracy
Optimal selection ratio and base rate to increase incremental validity of a predictor
-low selection ratio (many app's for one job)
-moderate base rate (% employees performing ok without use of predictor)
Differential validity
When a measure is valid for one group but not for another
when members of one gorup consistently score lowere on predictor than members of another group
Model of Career Development
-Focus on self concept
-Career dx occurs over life span and includes multiple life spaces
Use of Life-Career Rainbow
Model of Career Development
-Focus on 6 basic personality/work envt types (RIASEC)
Model of Career Development
-linked job choice to personality and basic needs, which are det'd by family atmosphere
Model of Career Development
-viewed career ID dx as aspec of ego ID dx
Tiedman & O'Hara
Model of Career Development
-emphasized continual learning and self dx (as opposed to matching indiv to job)
-social learning theory of career dx
-4 influencing factors (genetics, evnt, learning experiences, task approach skills)
Model of Career Development
-emphasized career concept (linear, expet, spiral, transitory)
Brousseau & Driver
Hathorne effect
identified importance of psychological and social factors on job productivity
Hygiene Factors
Context: pay, benefits, ,relat's with coworkers
-Lead to dissatisfaction if not fulfilled
Motivator Factors
Content: opportunities for responsibility, advancement, recognition, achievement
-Increase satisfaction when fulfilled
Belief that high effort will lead to successful task performance
Belief that successful performance will lead to rewards
Belief that rewards are desirable
Job productivity is increased when:
-pay/rewards are function of actual output rather than time spent on job
-why incentive plans are used
Worker char's that influence job satisfaction
disposition, age (increases as older), occupational level, race, gender, life satisfcation
Job char's that influence job satisfcation
nature of job, use of one's skills, pay, perception of being tx'd fairly
Research at Ohio State Univ (1950's)
-studied beahvior of supervisors/leaders
-id'd 2 types of leaders
1) Person-oriented- high consideration (warmth, concern, rapport)
2) Task-oriented- high initiating (defining/directing role of leader and subordinates
Person-orientd leaders are linked to:
high subordinate satisfaction
Task-oriented leadership style most effective for productivity/satisfaction when:
tasks are ambiguous
Contingency theory
leadership style is result of interactino between leader's style and favorableness of situation (amt of influence a leader has)
Low LPC leaders
interested in goal achievement
Relationship between leadership style and favorableness
Low LPC perform best in Very Favorable or Very Unfavorable situations, High LPC best in moderate situations
According to Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model, which leadership style is best for employees who are:
low in maturity (unable, unwilling, insecure)
According to Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model, which leadership style is best for employees who are:
moderate maturity (unable, but willing, competent
According to Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model, which leadership style is best for employees who are:
Moderately high maturity (able but unwilling/insecure)
According to Hersey & Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model, which leadership style is best for employees who are:
high maturity (able, willing, competent, confident)
Types of Group Tasks
add each members contributions
Types of Group Tasks
average input of group members to create single product
Types of Group Tasks
select solution/product of best member
Types of Group Tasks
overall performance limited by worst-performing member
When do decentralized communication networks confuse the situation?
When task is simple
Which model of decision-making is known as optimal decision-making?
Which model of decision-making is known for satisficing?
Bounded-rationality / Administrative
Strategies for ending conflict in an organization:
-locating common enemy
-negotiations between subgroups
-establishing superordinate goal
Note: establishing rules may temporarily suppress conflict, but won't end it
Stages of Change in Organization
Which type of OD intvn is designed to humanize the work envt and emphasized employee empowerment?
Quality of Work Life Programs
Which type of OD intvn uses autonomous work groups who make hiring/budget decisions and rotate leaders?
Self-Managed Work Teams
Which type of OD intvn assists members to help themselves by improving their ability to perceive processes undermining their interactions
Process Consultation
Which type of OD intvn focuses on employee attitudes/perceptions and uses data collection, feedback meetings, and action plans?
Survey Feedback
Which type of OD intvn focuses on customer satisfaction, employee empowerment, improvment of goods/services?
Total Quality Management
Strategies for overcoming resistance in an organization
Normative educative
Cumulative Prospect Theory (Kahneman and Tversky)
-tendency to weigh lossess more than gains
-makes people unlikely to take risks
Yerkes-Dodson Law: highest levels of learning/performance are associated with:
moderate arousal
moderate task difficulty
Compressed work week is associated with:
+effects on supervisor ratings
job satisfaction and satis with schedule

NOT related to objective measres of performance OR absenteeism
Flextime work schedule is associated with:
-increased productivity, overall job satisfaaction, satis with schedule, absenteeism, less stress, decreased work-family conflict

NOT related to: self-rated performance