Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
names the structure of the skin
epithelium/basement membrane/connective tissues
4 single-layered cells
simple squamous
simple cuboical
simple columnar
4 multiple layered cells (at least the top layer only) cells
stratified squamous
stratified cuboical
stratified columnar
Ciliated vs nonciliated important in what types of cells & why?
(location, function, histology)
both simple & stratified Columnar
When is kertinizied distinction important - in what types of cells?
stratified squamous
Give functions & examples of Keratinized
-forms top layer of skin, no nucleus
-lines mostly wet surfaces (mouth, espophagus + ??????????????)
Give functions & examples of Nonkeratinized cells
-lines mostly wet surfaces (mouth, espopha
4 main types of epithelium
Simple (3)
Stratified (3)
Pseudostratified (2 types)
Transitional (urinary bladder)
Pseudostratified (2 types)
1) Psudostratified columnar
2) Psudostratified ciliated columnar
Simple Squamous Epithelium (location, function, histology)
-lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, air sacs of lungs, epithelial layer of serous membrances, such as peritoneum (all are endothelium).
-in histology picture, you see the top view bec there's only 1 layer (dead give away of this cell in test)
(hint) has centrally located nucleus
-simple squamous cells/basement membrane/connective tissue
-required for blood filtration in kidnesy, or difusion (osygen into blood vessels of lungs), not foundi n body parts wear & tear
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
-covers sruface of ovary, lines kidney tubules & smaller ducts of many glands, lines anterior surface of capsule of eyes, make up secreting portion of soe glands (thyroid gland) & ducts of pancreas
- required for secretion & absorption
Simple Columnar Epithelium ( type 1)
Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
-has nuclei near the base of cells!
-contains goblet cells & cells w/microvilli in some locations
(imp) -lines gastrointestinal tract from stomach to the anus, ducts of many glands & gallbladder

contains columnar epithelia cells with cilia at apical surface & goblet cells
Stratified Squamous Epithelium (type 1)
Keratinized form:
-form superficial layer of skin
- consist of several layers of cells: cuboidal to columnar shipae in deep layers but squamous at the top (apical) layer - that's why this is sitll called squamous
- apical layers & several layers deep to it are dehydrated & contain
a layer of keratin, a tough fibrous protein that helps protect the skin & underlying tissue from heat, microbes & chemicals
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
(location, function, histology)
-fairly rare
-lines ducts of adult sweat glands & esophageal glands, part of male urethra
-consists of 2 or more layers iof celles,
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
(location, function, histology)
-also uncommon,
= are really several layers of irregularly shaped cells- but columnar cells in the top (apical) layer

-lines esophageal glands, part of urethra, large excretory ducts of some glands, small areas in anal ucous
Usually hte basal layer consist of shortened irregularly shaped cells,
only the apical layers has columnar in the form. This function to protect & secret
(on test):
Key: Only the top layer is columnar and it's still called columnar!!!
Simple Columnar Epithelium (type 2)
Ciliated simple columnar epithelium
- (imp) lines uterus, part of upper respiratory tract, & uterine (fallopian) tubes

-with microvilli at apical surface & goblet cells
Where are most ciliated simple columnar found & why>
-in respiratory tract airways, where goblets cells are dispersed, and mucus secreted by goblet cells forms a film over airway surface that traps inhaled foreign particles. cilia move mucus & bad stuff out of body.
What's the function of mucus?
mucus serves as a lubicant for hte linings of digestive, respiratory, reproductive & urniary tracts, & prevent destructio nof stomach lining by acidic astric juice
Stratified Squamous Epithelium (type 2)
-are really several layers of cells - squamous on topmost laeyr and than the other 2 on the bottom. differnet rom keratinized
- (imp) covers the tongue, lines the mouth, esophagus, epiglottis, vagina
NOnkeratinized form -
Transitional Epithelium
(location, function, histology)
-called transitional bec appearance is transitional or variable
-most imp:found only in urinary bladder lining, part of ureters & urethraa
-allos distention (blowing up)
-apical layers = squamous (when stretched) to cuboidal (when relaxed)
pseudostratified columnar epithelium (location, function, histology)
This is not a true stratified tissue,
Key (to histology slides): Most imp: Nuclie of cells are all at differnt depths.
***All cells are attached to the basement membrane, but not all extend to the surface!
Those that do either secrete mucus (goblet cells) or are cilia.
-Mucus works to tap foreign particles while cilia sweep away mucus for eliminatio nro m the body
Again, nuclei of cells are at different levels, all cells however attach to basement membrance, but not all reach the suface!
-imp: lines ariways of most upper respiratory tract
-lines ducts of many glands
-secret and moves mucus by ciliary action
-most famous: picture of trachea (!!!!)
Endocrine glands
Its secretions (hormones) enter interstitial fluid & then diffuse directly into the bloodstream w/o flowing through a duct (so seamless!!!)
-secrets hormones that diffuse ito blooddddd after pasing through interstitial fluid
-these hormones contrls homeostasis
-examples are pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands
Exocrine glands
-secrets products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering & lining epithelium
-it's released directly at the skin surface or into hte lumen of a loow organ
-secretions examples: mucus, sweat, oil , earwas, saliva, & digestive enzyesm
example of exocrine glands: sweat glands, salivary glands
-produce mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, or digestive enzymes
Which cells have cilia & goblet cells?
Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Which cells have no cilia or goblet cells?
Psuedostratified nonciliated columnar epithelium
-actually can be a single cell or a group of cells that secrete substance into ducts (tubes) onto a surface or into the blood. All glands of the body are endocrine or exocrine.
Connective Tissue
= cells & matrix (fills wide sapces between cells), or protein-ased fibers & ground substance, or hte material between the cells and the fibers. For example, matric in cartilage is firm but liable. In bone, the matrix is hard & not pliable.