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47 Cards in this Set

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List five major characteristics of epithelial tissue.
1. Tightly packed
2. Arranged in continuous sheets
3. Nerves but no vessels
4. Mitosis
5. Polarity
Distinguish between cells, tissues and organs.
Organs are composed of tissue and tissue is composed of cells.
completely encircles an epithelial cell near its apex and joins it tightly to the neighboring cells, like the plastic harness on a six-pack of soda cans. A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
tight junctions
links between cells, and provide a connection between intermediate filaments of the cell cytoskeletons of adjacent cells. This structure gives strength to tissues.
Desmosomes
Like a desmosome but joins a cell to a basal lamina rather than to another cell.
hemidesmosomes
glands whose secretions pass into a system of ducts that lead ultimately to the exterior of the body. So the inner surface of the glands and the ducts that drain them are topologically continuous with the exterior of the body (the skin).
Exocrine glands
These glands place their secretions into the internal environment - the blood.
Endocrine Glands
Examples of exocrine glands are:
•salivary glands (shown here) that secrete saliva into the mouth
•bile-producing glands of the liver
•prostate gland
•the portion of the pancreas that secretes pancreatic fluid into the duodenum. (The pancreas is also an endocrine gland - its islets of Langerhans secrete several hormones into the blood.)
•gastric glands
•sweat glands
Examples of endocrine glands are:
• the pituitary
• thyroid
• parathyroids
• adrenals
• pancreas
• testes
• ovaries
Describe the four types of epithelial membranes.
a. mucous membranes
b. serous membranes
c. cutaneous membranes
d. synovial membrane
What is the most common type of exocrine gland and provide a diagram
The most common type of exocrine gland is the merocrine gland, which secretes its product by means of exocytosis at the apical surfaces of the secretory cells
Transformation of one mature tissue type into another; for example, a change from pseudostratified to stratified squamous epithelium in an over ventilated nasal cavity
Metaplasia
The growth of a tissue through cellular multiplication, not cellular enlargement
Hyperplasia – (HY-pur-PLAY-zhuh)
The growth of a tissue through cellular enlargement, not cellular multiplication; for example, the growth of muscle under the influence of exercise.
Hypertrophy – (hy-PUR-tro-fee)
Abnormal growth of new tissue, such as a tumor, with no useful function.
Neoplasia – (NEE-oh-PLAY-zee-uh)
Shrinkage of a tissue due to age, disuse, or disease.
Atrophy – (AT-ro-fee)
Pathological tissue death due to such causes as infection, trauma, or hypoxia.
Necrosis – (neh-CRO-sis)
Tissue necrosis resulting from ischemia
Gangrene
1.)The sudden death of tissue from a lack of blood perfusion, also called an infarct. 2.)An area of necrotic tissue produced by this process.
Infraction – (in-FARK-shun)
Programmed cell death; the normal death of cells that have completed their function.
Apoptosis – (AP-oh-TOE-sis)
Distinguish between alopecia and pattern baldness.
Alopecia is the thinning of the hair or baldness. Whereas pattern baldness is the condition in which hair is lost from only some regions of the scalp rather than thinning uniformly across the entire scalp.
The skin on which the nail plate rests
Nail bed
Dead epidermis that covers the proximal end of the nail; commonly called the cuticle.
Cuticle (eponychium)
The region at the base of the nail appears as a small white crescent because it overlies a thick stratum basale that obscures dermal blood vessels from view.
Lunule
The major portion of the nail plate, overlying the nail fold.
Nail body
burns involve only the epidermis and are marked by redness, slight edema and pain.
First-degree
burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis but leave at least some of the dermis intact.
Second-degree
Which degree burns are also known as ‘partial-thickness burns.’
First and second degree burns
burns are also called full-thickness burns because the epidermis, dermis, and often some deeper tissue are completely destroyed.
Third-degree
Structure of simple squamous epithelium
One layer thin scaly cells.
Function of simple squamous epithelium
diffusion (gas exchange)
Structure of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Rectangular cells, with multiple irregular rows of nuclei
Function of pseudostratified
Produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes.
Alveoli of the lungs, wall of capillaries have this epithelium.
Simple Squamous Epithelium
The stomach, intestine, and the uterus have this epithelium.
Simple Columnar
The skin has this type of epithelium.
Stratified squamous (keratinized)
The ureter and urinary bladder have this type of epithelium
Transitional
Gap junctions are formed proteins called connexon. Gap junctions enable cells to:
communicate by exchanging solutes from the cytoplasm.
The function of hemidesmosome in epithelia cells is to:
anchor the bottom cells to the basement membrane.
A unicellular exocrine gland, which produces mucin (mucus) is called:
Goblet cell
This epithelial gland is ductless and produces hormones.
Endocrine gland
This cell produces the ground substance and reticular lamina.
Fibroblast
This cell produces antibodies
Plasma cell
You have the inability to form microvilli in your epithelial cells. What is most likely to happen?
The surface area of the small intestine would be greatly reduced.
This connective tissue stores energy, provides insulation, and cushions organs.
Loose adipose
This layer is lacking in the thin skin
Stratum lucidum (seen only in thick skin)
This layer contains up to 30 layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells.
Stratum Corneum (page 195)