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51 Cards in this Set

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Epithelium
Covering or lining of all the surfaces of the body
What are the 4 cell shapes?
Squamous;Columnar; Pseudostratified Columnar; Cuboidal
Squamous
smashed, flat like
Columnar
tall and skinny, like columns
Cuboidal
Cube like shape
Epithelium consists of what 4 parts?
Membranous, Cell layer, Glandular, Membranes
What are the 2 types of cell layers?
Simple Epithelium
Stratified Epithelium
Simple Epithelium
ONE layer of ...
Stratified Epithelium
MANY layers of ...
Generally resistant to dmage by wear and tear becasue of ready replacement cells. Passive diffusion through these layers is slow but not impossible.
Simple Squamous
alveoli, lining of blood and lymph vessels, Pleura (heart cavities), pericardium, and peritoneum. (Rapid diffusion of gases in a solution are characteristic activities of these cells)
Simple Cuboidal
thyroid gland, ovary (generally secretory cells)
Simple Columnar
stomach, intestine, uterus, uterine tubes, parts of the respiratory tract (cells are secretion and absorption cells)
Psuedostratified Columnar
lines and the respiratory passages, urethra (the cells often contain cilia-tiny hairs that can move surface material)
Stratified Squamous (keratinized)
skin
Stratified Squamous (non-keratinized)
vagina, mouth, esophagus
Stratified Cuboidal
Sweat glands, pharynx, epiglottis
Stratified Columnar
male urethra, mucus layer near anus
Stratified Transitional
Urinary bladder (these cells allow for distention-stretching across the bladder)
Glandular
produce and secrete/excrete materials
What are the 2 types of glands?
Endocrine Glands
Exocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands
have NO DUCTS (Hormones screted into the body from glands ex. Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes, and Ovaries)
Exocrine Glands
have DUCTS that are lined with Epithelium Cells
What are the 8 types of Exocrine glands?
Simple Tubular, Simple Coiled Tubular, Simple Branched Tubular, Simple Aveolar Glands, Simple Branched Alveolar, Compound Tubular, Compound Alveolar, Compound Tubuloalveolar
Simple Tubular
ONE duct; TUBE shaped secretory portion (intestinal glands)
Simple Coiled Tubular
ONE duct; COILED, TUBE shaped secretory portion (sweat glands)
Simple Branched Tubular
ONE duct; BRANCHES into two TUBE shaped secretory portions (gastric glands)
Simple Alveolar Glands
ONE duct; SAC shaped secretory portion (sebaceous gland)
Simple Branched Alveolar
ONE duct; BRANCHES repeatedly SAC shaped secretory portion (sebaceous gland)
Compound Tubular
MORE than one duct; TUBE shaped secretory portion (testes)
Compound Alveolar
MORE than one duct; SAC shaped excretory portion (mammary glands)
Compound Tubuloalveolar
MORE than one duct; TUBE shaped and SAC shaped secretory portion (salivary glands)
What are the 3 Functional Classifications of Exocrine Glands
Apocrine, Holocrine, Merocrine
Apocrine
collect their products near the tip of the cell and then release it into a duct by PINCHING OFF the distended end. This results in loss of cytoplasm and damage to the cell. (mammary glands)
Holocrine
product is collected inside the cell and then RUPTURES completely to release it (sebaceous glands)
Merocrine
discharge their secretion through the cell or plasma membrane, NO injury to the cell wall or loss of cytoplasm. Mose secretory cells are of this type (salivary glands)
Membranes
A thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity or divides a space or organ.
Epithelium Membrane
formed by the union of Epithelium and Connective Components
Epithelium
considered to be AVASCULAR, which means that they get their nutrients through diffusion of materials through the base membrane.
What are the 4 types of Membranes?
Cutaneous (skin), Serous, Mucus, Tympanic Membrane
Cutaneous
skin
Serous
-secretes a clear, water-like lubricating fluid
-lines closed body cavities; such as abdomen and chest cavities, and covers the visceral structures found in those cavities. (heart chambers, pericardium and peritoneum)
Mucus
-line and protect organs that open to the exterior of the body
-mucus produced by the goblet cells keep the passages moist and lubricated. (respiratory and digestive systems)
Tympanic Membrane
-Ear Drum
-outer surface consists of stratified simple squamous.
-inside consists of simple squamous.
-between the two layers is a sheet of fibrous connective tissue.
What are the 5 Functions of Epithelium?
Protection, Sensory, Secretion, Absorption, Excretion
Protection
Generalized protection is the most important function of Membranous epithelium
Sensory
Epithelial Derivatives can give specialized sensory functions that are found in the skin, nose, eye and ear.
Secretion
Glandular Epithelium is specialized for secretory activity. This includes hormones, mucus, digestive juices, sweat and oils.
Absorption
The Lining Epithelium of the intestines and respiratory tracts allow for absorption of nutrients into the intestinal wall and the exchange of gases between air in the lungs and blood.
Excretion
Specialized Epithelial lining of kidney tubules that make the excretion and concentration of excretory products in the urine possible.
Pseudostratified Columnar
Falsely layered, like columns
Membranous
covering or lining (Base layer)