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16 Cards in this Set

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What are 2 ways to define disease in financial terms?
1) Measures-of effect approach
2) Cost-benefit analysis
Cost-benefit analysis is a method for estimating profitability of disease control programs over an extender period by what 3 things?
1) Enumerating benefits & costs
2) Application of a discount rate to benefits and cost
3) Specification of a decision criterion
What equation can you use measure costs and benefits of a disease control program since they do not occur simultaneously and also adjust for the time value of money?
PV= 1/ (1 +r)^n x FV
PV= present value
r= interest rate
FV=future value
n= time period
What are the 3 decision criteria involved in cost-benefit analysis?
1) Net present value
2) Benefit- cost ratio
3) Internal rate of return
What is net present value? When is the program viable?
The difference b/w total present value of benefits & costs.
-Program viable if NPV > 0
What information does the net present value provide?
Gives scale of benefits but not the relative size of investment for gain
What is the benefit-cost ratio? What information does it provide?
Ratio of total present benefits to costs
-Gives $$ return per $$ investment, but no indication of scale of investment
What is the internal rate of return?
Interest rate that would make the total present value of benefits equal to that of costs- i.e. reduce NPV to 0.
How do you know if a program is viable according to the internal rate of return?
If IRR > available interest rate then program viable
When do you use decision analysis?
When trying to reach a ration decision in the face of uncertainty
What are the 3 components of "decision trees"?
1) Nodes: decision, chance, terminal
2) Utilities: net benefit or cost of each outcome
3) Variables: probability and utility
What are 3 strategies to reduce frequency of disease?
1) Disease prevention
-forestall disease transmission or occurrence of clinical signs
2) Disease control
-reduce frequency of disease to tolerable level
3) Disease eradication
-complete elimination of disease agent from environment
What are 3 focuses of disease prevention?
1) Focus on risk factors for disease
2) Prevent contact w/ infected animals
-quarantine, culling, confinement, animal movement regulations
3) Prophylaxis
-antibiotics, vaccines
What are 3 focuses of disease control?
1) Focus on source & mode of transmission
2) Treatment of affected individuals
3) "tolerable" depends on stake holders' interests: financial / public health risks/ disease dynamic
What are 3 focuses of disease eradication?
1) Test & removal strategy
2) Herd depopulation strategy
3) Often combined w/ disease prevention in currently unaffected population segments (Vacc programs)
What are 5 conditions that make disease eradication feasible?
1) an effective means for ID of reservoirs (diagnostic tests)
2) An effective method for destruction of the agent in reservoirs (or reservoirs themselves)
3) A small host range (preferable a single host)
4) A single or limited spectrum of disseminated mechanisms that can be readily manipulated
5) Acceptability to the industry
*For eradication 1 + of these criteria need to be met