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11 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Steps in formal research
1. Background
2. Stimulating observation, question, or problem
3. Working hypothesis
4. Conditional prediction
5. Gather and analyze data
6. Draw conclusions
What was already known or taken as fact?
Background
You notice something and begin to wonder "why?" or "how?"
Stimulating observation, question, or problem
You make a guess
Working hypothesis
You formulate a prediction, if...then statement
Conditional prediction
You make observations or do experiments to see if the predicted consequence does occur
Gather & analyze data
Conclusions drawn:
Rule 1: if predicted consequence doesn't occur, you conclude the working hypothesis is not true
Rule 2: if the predicted consequence does occur, you conclude that the working hypothesis might be true.
Draw Conclusions
Is science a collection of answers or facts about the natural/biological world?
No, it is a process for asking questions that matter in such a way that nature can reveal the answers.
Working hypothesis
Unambiguous, declarative assertion about how nature works
Confounding variable
A third variable that wasn't studied that could also lead to the same result
Does association prove causation?
No!