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13 Cards in this Set

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The number of ALL cases in a given time period
Prevalence
The number of new cases in a given time
Incidence
subset of population at risk
target population
Way to find out which people in a population have a disease compared to those who do not.
Screening
Number of truly diseased people who test positive for the disease
=(True Positives)/(True Positive + False Negative)
Sensitivity
Number of truly non-diseased people who test negative for the disease
=(True Negatives)/(False Positive + True Negative)
Specificty
Probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive
Positive predicted value
Probability that a person with a negative test is a true negative
Negative predicted value
Association between exposure to a particular factor and risk of a certain outcome
Relative risk
Relative Risk Ration (RRR)
Incidence rate among exposed/incidence rate among unexposed
=A/C
True Positive/False Negative
The difference between the incidence rate among the exposed and the incidence rate among the unexposed
Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR)
Attributable risk reduction
ARR = (A-C)/A+C
Numbers Needed to Treat NNT
NNT = 1/ARR

Ie: average number of patients that a doc would need to treat in order to prevent outcome.
Reanalysis and statistically cross-references multiple studies
Meta-analysis
Gives significance to studies that couldn't stand alone on their own merits
Critics say try to correlate apples and oranges.