Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Colonscopy Screening
Once every 10 years in patients over 50 years of age
or 40 years or greater for patients w/ high risk of patients

CT virtual colonoscopy is comparable and can be used every five years as an initial screening exam
Flexible sigmoidoscopy
once every five years in patients 50 or older

or 40 or older of age for high-risk patient
FOBT or FIT
Once every year in patients 50 years of age or greater

or 40 years of age or greater in high risk patients
Bimanual pelvic exam
Once every 1-3 years in patients 20-40 years of ae

Once yearly in patients 40 years of age or greater
Pap test
once every year within 3 years after onset of vaginal intercourse, but no later than 21 up to age 30

once every two years w/ liquid based Pap test

Interval can be increased to once every 2-3 years for women > 30 years of age w/ three - cytology tests
Mammography
Once every 1-2 years in patients 40 you or older

Once yearly in patients 50 years of age or greater
DRE
Offer every year to high-risk patients at 40 years and to others at 50 years
PSA
Offer every year to high-risk patients at 40 years adn to others at 50 years of age
Clinical breast exam
Offers every three years to female patients in 20s and 30s, and every year to females 40 or more years of age
Sensitivity
true positive / (true positive / false negative)
Specificity
true negative / (true negative + false positive)
Positive predictive value
probability that someone + truly has disease

TP/(TP + FP)
Negative predictive value
probability that someone - truly does not have disease

TN/(TN + FN)
likelihood ratio
how much more likely a given test result is in disease sate as opposed to non-disease state
+ LR
(diseased people w/ + result) / (nondiseased people w/ + result)
- LR
(diseased people w/ - result) / (nondiseased people w/ - result)
Cohort study
prospective study that provides incidence (new cases)

uses relative risk
Case Control Study
Retrospective study that provides prevalence (total cases)

uses odds ratio
Cross Sectional Study
Provides prevalence "snapshot"
Case report
describes unusalpatient
What is a Case Series Report
Describes several unusual patients
Consensus Panels
Panel of experts provides a recommendation
Meta-analysis
tries to combine data from many trials
Absolute risk
incidence of disease
Attributable risk
incidence of disease due to risky exposure, on top of background incidence from other causes

e.g.,
(number of injuries among staff who used scissors) - (number of injuries among staff who did not use scissors)
Relative Risk
(incidence in exposed) / (incidence in unexposed)
Odds ratio
estimate of relative risk that is used in case-control studies

(odds that a diseased person is exposed) / (odds that a nondiseased is exposed)
95% Confidence Interval
95% sure it lies within the interval
Number needed to treat
number needed to treat to change one life
p < 0.5
random chance that you will be wrong 1 out of 20 times
Null hypothesis
nothing's happening
Power
power of detecting a true intervention
type I error
P value error, false negative

"too optimistic"
type II negative
Power error, false positive

"too positive"
Accuracy
validity / truth
Precision
reliability
Selection bias
sample selected from other groups in additional determinants of outcome

e.g., surgeon picks patients w/o comorbidity for study
Measurement bias
data-gathering methods differ btw groups
Confounding bias
third variable associated w/ both the dependent variable and independnet variable, idnucing false positive (type I bias)
Recall bias
difference btw two groups in retrospective recall of past factors or outcomes

e.g., patient w/ cancer more motivated to recall past episodes of exposure than healthy person
Lead time bias
earlier detection of disease, gives appearance of prolonged survival, when natural course not actually altered
Length bias
screening detects disproportionate # of slowly progressive diseases, but misses rapidly progressive ones, overestimating the benefit of the screen
if confidence interval is high, power is
low
primary prevention
measures to decrease incidence of disease
secondary prevention
identifying disease early, when asymptomatic or mild, and implementing measures that can halt or slow disease progression
tertiary prevention
measures that decrease morbidity and mortality, resulting from presence of disease
Hepatitis B vaccine
birth
1 month
6 month
DTaP
2 months
4 months
6 months
18 months
4-6 years
11-12 y: TdaP
Hib
2 months
4 months
6 months
12 months
IPV
2 months
4 months
6 months
4-6 yrs
MMR
12 months
4-6 years
Varicella
12 months
4-6 years
Pneumococcal
2 mo
4 mo
6 mo
12 mo

65 yo
Meningococcal
11-12 yo
Hep A
12 mo
18 mo
Flu vaccine
6 mo
1 year
then annually
Hepatitis B vaccine
birth
1 month
6 month
DTaP
2 months
4 months
6 months
18 months
4-6 years
11-12 y: TdaP
Hib
2 months
4 months
6 months
12 months
IPV
2 months
4 months
6 months
4-6 yrs
MMR
12 months
4-6 years
Rota virus
2 mo
4 mo
6 mo