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51 Cards in this Set

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___ is the study of the nature, cause, control and determinants of the frequency and distribution of disease, disability and death in human population.
epidemiology
A ___ is a public health scientist who is responsible for carrying out useful and effective activities such as describing the distribution of disease, fitting observations about disease occurrence into known scientific and medical knowledge.
epidemiologist
The factors contributing to the source of or causation of a disease.
etiology
The ongoing, usual level of, or constant presence of a disease within a given population
endemic
A persistent level of activity beyond or above the expected prevalence
hyperendemic
A disease that is highly prevalent in a population and is commonly acquired early in life in most all of the children in a population.
holoendemic
The outbreak or occurrence of one specific disease from a specific disease from a specific source, in a group, population, community, or geographical area, in excess of the usual level of expectancy.
epidemic
An epidemic that is widespread across a country, continent, or a large populace, possibly worldwide.
pandemic
The number of new cases of a disease which came into existence within a certain period of time per specified unit of population.
incidence
The number of people within a population who have a certain disease, disorder, or condition at a given point in time.
prevalence
Inanimate objects that serve a role in disease transmission by conveying infection due to being contaminated with disease-causing organisms.
fomites
Any living nonhuman carrier of disease that transports and serves the process of disease transmission.
vectors
Humans, plants, animals, soil, or inanimate organic matter (feces or food) in which infectious organisms live and multiply.
reservoirs
Those diseases and infections which are transmitted between vertebrate animals and man.
zoonoses
One which contains, harbors or spreads an infectious organism.
carrier
An individual who has been exposed to and harbors a disease-causing organim and has done so for some time, even though they may have recovered from the disease, is a ___ carrier.
active carrier
An individual who has been exposed to and harbors a disease-causing organism (pathogen) and is in the recovery phase of the course of the disease but is still infectious.
convalscent carrier
An individual who has been exposed to and harbors a disease-causing organism (pathogen) but has not become ill or has not shown any of the symptoms of the disease is a healthy carrier.
healthy carrier
An individual who has been exposed to and harbors a disease-causing organims (pathogen), is in the beginning stages of the disease, is showing symptoms, and has the ability to transmit the disease.
incubatory carrier
An individual who has been exposed to and harbors a disease-causing organism (pathogen) and who can intermittently spread the disease.
intermittent carrier
An individual who has been exposed to and harbors a disease-causing organism (pathogen) but has not signs and symptoms of the disease.
passive carrier
Direct and immediate transfer of the pathogen or agent from a host/reservoir to a susceptible host. Direct transmission can occur through direct physical contact or direct person-to-person contact, such as touching with contaminated hands, skin-to-skin contact, kissing, or sexual intercourse.
direct transmission/person-to-person transmission
Occurs when pathogens or agents are transferred or carried by some intermediate item, organism, means, or process to a susceptible host, resulting in disease.
Indirect transmission
Humans, plants, animals, soil, or inanimate organic matter (feces or food) in which infectious organisms live and multiply.
reservoir
Common source epidemics usually fall into what 3 subcategories?
1. point source
2. intermittent
3. continuous
When the agent or pathogen comes from a single source, such as food, this is called ___.
point source epidemic
Spread of the disease is irregular and somewhat unpredictable, with an irregular pattern.
intermittent epidemic
When an epidemic spreads through a community or population at a high level, affecting a large number of people within the population without diminising. As exposure grows and spreads, with people becoming ill on regular basis, and even increasing for a time, this outbreak is considered a ___ epidemic.
continuous
An epidemic that is caused by either direct or indirect transmission of a communicable disease from one individual to another and can have multiple sources from which the disease can be transmitted.
propagated epidemic
Occurs when a common source epidemic is followed by person-to-person contact and the disease is spread as a propagated outbreak.
mixed epidemic
The first case of the disease that has been introduced into the population group.
primary case
The first case brought to the attention of the epidemiologist, not always the primary case.
index case
Persons becoming infected and ill once a disease has been introduced into a population and who became infected from contact with the primary case
secondary case
Deaths per 100 episodes is called?
case fatality ratio
Measurement of a disease process found by looking at several variables such as Average Length of Stay, how debilitating the disease is, the chances for recovery, etc.
case severity
The level of entry into the health care system, such as a visit to a family physician.
primary care
Health care usually given in the hospital environment, extended care in a nursing home, or the usual care provided by a home health agency.
secondary care
The highest level of health care found in larger, advanced-care hospitals which use the highest levels of technology such as open heart surgery, brain surgery and neonatal intensive care units.
tertiary care
Prevention which halts any occurrence of a disease or disorder before it happens.
primary prevention
Prevention aimed at health screening and detection activities used to discover pathogenic states in individuals within a population. Its aim is blocking the progression of disase or an injury from developing into an impairment of disability.
secondary prevention
Prevention in which the aim is to retard or block the progression of a disability, condition or disorder in order to keep it from becoming advanced and in need of excessive care.
tertiary prevention
Persons becoming infected and ill once a disease has been introduced into a population and who became infected from contact with the primary case.
secondary case
An instance of a person contracting a disease or condition more than once.
recurring case
It can be the first occurrence or it can be a new case of the same disease.
new case
An individual or group of individuals who have all of the signs and symptoms of a disease or condition, yet have not been diagnosed as having the disease, nor has the cause of the symptoms been connected to a suspected pathogen.
suspect case
Use of a standard set of criteria to determine whether a person exposed to a certain disease has that disease or condition.
case definition
When a single source can not be indentified but the disease is running rampant is a ___ epidemic. Cases occur over and over.
propagated
An epidemic where a pathogen comes from a single source (food) is called?
point source
An epidemic where people are becoming ill on a regular basis is called?
continuous
An epidemic where an infection is transmitted irregularly is called?
intermittent epidemic
HIV is an example of what kind of epidemic?
propagated epidemic