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17 Cards in this Set

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Hugh levels 3 levels:
-___keeps disease from becoming established(immunization,fluoridation,seatbelt use)
-interrupts disease before symptomatic (cancer screening)
-limits physical social consequences of symptomatic disease (med or surgery treat, rehab)
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
1900's disease due to_______
1990's due to________
infxs (pneu,TB,Diarr,Heart disease)
All lifestyle choices
Epidemiology uses ____reasoning- specific to general , John Snow-cholera
Inductive reasoning
BEINGS model

VECTORS btw agent,host,enviro
Biological Behavioral
Environmental
Immunologic
Nutrition
Genetic
Services, Social, Spiritual
___ biological spectrum of disease, few deaths, litle more clinical illness, lot more asymptomatic cases
The iceberg phenomenon
___ number new cases in pop during study period
____ preexisting who have disease at certain point in time
Incidence

Prevalence
Present Absent

Present a b

Absent c d

Relative risk =
Odds ratio=
[a/(a+b)]/[c/(c+d)]

ad/bc
___data indicate diff categ. cant be ranked (N,S,E,W, Blood O A AB B)
____type nominal only 2 levels (well/sick,live dead,M/F)
___grouped and ranked but not measure rank (none, mild, moderate, severe symp class low mid high)
____not ordered, but measurable(BP, temp, weight,height, blood sugar)
_______ 200lb is 2x 100lb
Nominal
Dichotomous(binary)
Ordinal
Continuous (interval)
Ratio
Variance formula _____
squared, not same units

Standard devi form_____
square variance
small SD=
sum(X-mean)2/N

sq root of variance (how much varies from mean)

values dont vary much from mean
Normal dist

w/in 1 SD:
w/in 2 SD:
w/in 3 SD:
68.2%
95.4
99.6%
_____ hypoth there is no true correlation btw 2 things or no difference in means

_____ max probablity there is an association (when there isnt) 0.05
Null

Alpha
____hypoth that there is a true diff btw means or prop or is an association btw 2 var

____ probab the observed diff could be due to chance
Alternative

P-value
____ error false neg fail to reject null that is false

_____ error (false positive reject null that is really true
Type II

Type I
____ test to compare means of continuous variable to determine if the diff btw 2 means is more than expected due to chance (t distr flatter than normal)
_____used in before and after exp.sub followed around to see if change in value of contin var (BP) any varia attributable to intervention or changes over time in same subject
Student's t test

Paired t-test
_____ test determine prob of seeing specific calculated value, larger = less likely due to chance uses for 2x2
Chi square test independence
___a stat test strength of linear relationship btw var which are continuos (weight vs height) correl coeff r r close to 1_______
simple linear regression

more closely related variables are
sensitivity form:
Specificity form:
positive predic value form:
a/(a+c)

d/(b+d)

a/(a+b)