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### 15 Cards in this Set

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 What/Why is a measure of disease occurence for? Quantify the likelihood of disease development in a single group. 1)Risk 2)Odds 3)Incidence rates 4 purpose of cohort analysis 1)Measure of the occurence of D 2)Measure the effect of E on the occurrence of D 3)Control for confounding by other differences between E+ and E- 4)Test/Identify effect modification Risk The probability that a person who initially does not have the disease will develop it by the end of fixed or defined period 3 major components of risk 1)Probability (between 0 and 1) 2)simple: calculate proportion who develop D 3)Can use life-table method Synonyms of risk Cumulative incidence Cumulative incidence rate Cumulative incidence proportion Odds Odds = p/(1-p) p=risk Incidence Rate likelihood of occurerence for binary outcomes that quantifies the instantaneous rate of disease development. 3 What NOT to do for variable follow-up 1)Ignore and estimate risk as proportion 2)Take shortest period of follow-up 3)Never allow - always do fixed period studies What to with variable follow-up Estimate incidence rate and calculate risk if strict assumptions hold true Synonyms for Incidence 1)Incidence rate 2)Incidence density 3)Hazard function 4)Force morbidity/mortality 4 characteristics of Incidence rate 1)Varies between 0 and inf 2)[events/time] 3)Magnitude of rate depends upon time unit 4)often not constant over time Can use person-time methods with 3 assumptions 1)Incidence is constant over time 2)Incidence is homogenous among persons in the population 3)Loss to follow-up or censoring is not associated with D Incidence eqn if assumptions hold I=(# of events)/(total person-time) 2 equations for estimating risk based on incidence I must be constant 1)Risk(t) = 1-exp(-I*t) 2)If I*t < 0.1: Risk(t)=I*t For non-constant I Use survival analysis (life tables)