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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Epidemiology is the study of
the factors influencing the frequency and distribution of diseases within a community
1. communicable diseases – diseases that can be transmitted from one host to another

2. non-communicable diseases – diseases that are transmitted by means other than host to host (ex. from flora or soil)
- Rate of diseases
A.Attack rate

B.Morbidity rate

the percentage of a given population, rather than the absolute number of cases
A) number of disease cases per 100 people exposed

B)the number of cases of illness in a given time period divided by the population at risk

C the rate of death within a given population as a result of the disease
2. Incidence

3. Pervelence
a. Endemice diseases
b. Epidemic
c. Pandemic
d. Outbreak
2.reflects the number of new cases in a specific time period in a given population at risk

3.reflects the number of total existing cases both old and new in a given population at risk

A.constantly present in a population (ex. common cold) unusually large number of cases within the population

C.when an epidemic spreads worldwide (ex. AIDS)

D.when a cluster of cases occur during a brief time interval and affect a specific population
ways to Control infectious diseases
1. Identify the reservoirs
a. Human/nonhuman zoonotic
2. Envornmental- water & soil
3. Knowing type of transmission
4. Knowing the type of vector
soil is aganet for what
Water is agent for what
1. Anthrax and tetanus
2. Legionnaires disease
Two types of transmission
a. Horizontal?
b. Vertical?
a. Transfer form one person to another through contact, igestion of food or water or via living agent such as insects

b. Transfer from pregnant woman to the fetus or from a mother to her infact during childbirth
Transmission can be accomplshed by
1. 1) Contact
a) Direct contact – Òperson to personÓ transmission by touching, kissing, sexual intercourse, etc.
b) Indirect contact – transfer of the pathogen via inanimate objects (fomites)
c) Droplet transmission – respiratory droplets can spread disease if persons are in close proximity (no more than 1 meter)

3. AIR
what are vectors and what is the different bw mechanical and biological
- Its any living thing organism that can carry a disease-causing microbe

a.Organism carries the microbe on their body from one place to another

b. Require for part of the parasites life cycle
Factors that influence epidemiology
1. Dose
2. Incubation period
3. Characterisic of the
4. Nosocomial infections
Characteristics of the population as a factor that influence epidemiology
1. Immunity to the pathogen
2. General health
3. Age
4. Gender
5. Religious and cultural
6. Genetic background
7. Occcupational exposure
What are Nosocomial infections
Infections aquired by patients during their hospial stay
Common example of Nosocomial infection
1.1) Enterococcus sp – normal intestinal flora; frequently cause UTIs, wound & blood infections

2) E. coli – normal intestinal flora; commonly cause UTIs
3) Pseudomonas sp – grow frequently on humidifiers and mechanical ventilators; cause hospital-acquired pneumonia
4) Staphylococcus sp – normal skin flora in many people; commonly causes septicemia, pneumonia, and surgical wound infections