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121 Cards in this Set

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primary prevention
prevention of disease from occuring
eg. testing and quarantine programs at borders, vaccination
secondary prevention
prevention of progression of early stage disease
eg. intervention and therapy
eradication- primary at its best
tertiary prevention
prevention of disability from advanced disease and the rehabilitation of the individual to functional capacity
slaughter
deliberate killing of infected, potentially infected, or contact animals
selective- positives only
complete- all animals in affected herd (foreign animal diseases usually)
quarantine
enforced physical seperation of infected or potentially infected individuals, eliminating potential transmission and provide time for detection
reduction of contact
prevention of contact b/w known or potentially infected animals and susceptible animals
eg. all in/all out etc.
chemical use
disinfection, prophylaxis, pesticides
reduce the agent in the environment or in the host or to reduce transmission through vector control
modification of host resistance
increased host resistance through immunization or genetic improvement
environmental, biological, and management control
alteration of the environment or management practices to control or eliminate disease
Principles of Biosecurity based on:
lab practice and technique
safety equipment
facility design
eradication of pseudorabies (aujeszky's disease) in the US
combined efforts of federal, state and industry
Pseudorabies eradication state-federal industry program standards
part 1- definitions
part 2- administrative procedures
part 3- program stages and requirements
part 4- participation in herd plans and release of quarantines
5 step program to rid herd of pseudorabies
-enhance the immunity of the herd- vaccination
-plan a segreation system (biosecurity)
-reduce stress (overstocking)
-monitor the herd (serology)
-rotate the old breeding stock
Spanish Influenza
1918 v/d dizziness, nosebleeds, chills, fever, labored breathing
millions of people died worldwide
Orthomyxovirus, HA or NA
mutate by genetic drift and shift- variation b/w years
host range of influenza
wild birds, poultry, swine, humans, horses, sea mammals
increasing odds for another influenza pandemic
increase pop. density, mobility, domestic animal density, direct and indirect contact
plague
Yersinia pestis
bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms
change in the agent, rat pop. and sanitation made it go away
last case in LA 1924
associated with prarie dogs and cats
transmitted by fleas
origin of AIDS
1)tainted polio vaccine (orginate from green monkey cell lines)
2)contaminated needles
3)cut hunter (primates as bush meat)
4)heart of darkness (colonial processes, more reliance on bushmeat and poor living cond'n)
dermomycosis
microsporum canis, trichophyton mentagrophyles
contact transmission from cats and dogs, lab animals, horse, cattle
anthrax
Bacillus anthracis
direct contact, undercooked meat, inhalation of spores
cutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal forms
Brucellosis
Brucella abortus, suis, melitensis, and canis

B. abortus vaccine pathogenic to humans
wildlife infected with abortus- elk and bison at yellowstone
suis- feral swine and reindeer
Cat Scratch Fever
Bartonella henselae
domestic cat reservoir
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
contract from fish, swine/pork, and poultry
mycobacteriosis
M. tuberculosis, bovis, avium, and leprae
M. leprae in armadillos
Humans reservoir for M. tuberculosis but can be spread to other animals (elephants)
cattle and WTD, nadgers, opposums- bovis
Psittacosis
Chlamydophila psittaci
birds are the reservoir (pets)
Rat-Bite Fever
Haverhill disease
Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillium minus
rate bites, rats are the reservoir
Tularemia
Francisella tularensis
Lagomorphs- Type A and Rodents- Type B
vector-tick
rabbits, rodents and other wildlife are reservoirs
sheep can be infected
direct contact or aerosol- not person to person
Martha's vineyard- lawnmowers
praire dogs
Endemic Relapsing Fever
Borrelia hermsii or turicatae
vector- soft ticks
Leptospirosis
Leptospira interogans
transmitted by infected urine
virtually domestic and wild animals infected
Lyme
Borrelia burgdorferi
transmitted by Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus (human infection)
rodents are the reservoir
Ehrlichiosis
E. chaffeensis- vectored by A. americana, reservior is WTD
HGA- vectored by Ixodes spp.
E. ewingi- vectored by A. americana, reservior in dogs
Murine typhus
Rickettsia typii
wound contamination by rat feces
norway and roof rats reservior
Q fever
Coxiella burnetii
inhalation
ruminants are primary reservior
agent spred in placenta and milk
ticks may be important in wildlife
RMSF
Rickettsia rickettsia
transmitted by ticks (dermacentor) ticks reservior and vector
Arenavirus infection
Bolivia and Argentinian hemorrhagic fevers
rodent reservoir
California encephalitis group of Bunyaviruses: California encephalits, Jamestown Canyon, LaCrosse virus
mosquito vectors and wildlife amplifying hosts and reservoirs
transmitted by Aedes spp.
chipmunks and small rodents involved
deer-amplifying host for Jamestown
rodents for California
Colorado tick fever
Orbivirus, Reovirus
vectored by Dermacentor andersoni
most cases in wyoming and colorado
Contagious ecthyma
Orf
Parapoxvirus, poxviridae
direct contact with cattle, sheep and deer
Eastern/Western equine encephalitis
mosquito vectors, Culex and Aedes spp. plus others
maintained in a wild bird/mosquito cycle with spillover into horses and humans
Hantavirus
Seoul, Hantaan, and Puumala viruses associated with renal
pulmonary syndrome with Sin nombre
rodent reservoir with specific host/virus relationships, contact and fecal transmission
Herpesvirus B
nonhuman primates, direct contact
Asian monkeys (Macaca)
aerosol, bites, broken skin
Influenza
reservoir- wild birds
swine- IH between birds and humans
domestic poultry also and IH
rabies
Lyssavirus, Rhabdoviridae
Not in australia
US- BATS and raccoons, foxes
Europe and Asia- dogs
Rift Valley Fever
Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae
mosquito born, Culicoides and Simulium spp.
domestic sheep and cattle play a role in maintaining and amplifying
dogs, cats and humans
Saint Louis encephalitis
Flavivirus
transmitted by mosquitos
maintained in a Culex/wild bird cycle
Venezuelan Equine encephalitis
Alphavirus, Togavirus
transmitted by mosquitos (Culex, Aedes, Mansonia etc) in a mosquito/rodent cycle
horses- amplifying host
Yellow Fever
Flavivirus
urban and sylvatic cycle with nonhuman primates in sylvatic
new world monkeys dvlp disease
mosquito transmitted by Aedes
Hendra and Nipah virus
Paramyxovirus
flying foxes are the reservoir for both
hendra in horses and humans in australia
nipah in pigs and humans in malaysia
Monkey pox
Orthopoxvirus
rodents are the reservoir
introduced by import of African rodents (praire dogs)
Anisakiasis
larval nematodes
consumption of uncooked fish
marine fish are IH and marine mammals are DH
Cutaneous Larval Migrans
hookworms from dogs and cats- Ancylostoma
Visceral and Ocular Migrans
intestinal nematodes
dogs, cats, raccoons, and skunks
Toxocara and Baylisascaris procyonis and columnaris
Trichinosis
Trichinella, consumption of raw or undercooked meat (pigs, horses, bears, and marine mammals)
Echinococcosis
larval cestodes of E. granulosus
DH include dog, coyotes, foxes and wild canids
IH are ungulates and rodents
Taeniasis
adult cestodes of T. saginatum (beef) and T. solium (pork)
Cystercosis
larval stages of Taenia solium
ingestion of human feces
Cercarial dermatitis
Swimmer's itch
larval stages of non-human mammalian and avian trematodes
IH-aquatic snails
Babesiosis
blood-borne protozoan
Babesia microti
tick vectors- Ixodes scapularis
reservoirs- wild rodents, deer and bighorn sheep
Cryptosporidium
intestinal coccidium
fecal oral transmission from infected humans or animals
Giardia
intestinal flagellate
dogs, cats, rodents, beavers
Leishmaniasis
vector borne by sand flies
humans, dogs, wild rodents respresent reservoir hosts
toxoplasmosis
tissue dwelling coccidian
T. gondii
ingestion of oocyst shed by cats or ingestion of bradyzoites in undercooked meats
American Trypanosomiasis
blood-borne flagellate
T. cruzi
parasite deposited in feces of "Assassin Bugs" (Reduviidae)
reservoirs can be dog, cat, armadillos, oppossums, rabbits, rodents
Organisms that led to the pasteurization of milk
Mycobacterium bovis
Brucella abortus
Foodborne outbreak case definition (CDC)
2 or more persons experience a similar illness after ingestion of a common food
and
Epidemiologic analysis implicates the food as source of illness
exceptions to foodboren outbreak case definition
botulism only has to have one person
Quality assurance (QA)
assurance statement that the objectives and goals as to product quality are in order and that a qualtiy control program to meet these objectives and goals is in place
Quality control (QC)
set of production methods and policies to provide a quality product
Primary contamination
food animal source, infected animals or fecal contamination from infected animals
secondary contamination
environmental source
infected humans, other animals, fomites
Chemical adulterants
food additives or animal food supplement
foodborne intoxication
pathogenic changes associated with the consumption of preformed toxins
foodborne infection
pathogenic changes associated with the replication of the agent
Staphylococcus toxin
ubiquitous source, wounds on food handlers common
meat, dairy, salads
Botulism
Clostridium botulinum
ubiquitous in soil, coastal waters and intestines of animals and fish, wounds, shellfish
canned foods, honey in infants
Clostridium perfringens
spores can survive cooking
ubiquitous source
meats and meat products
Salmonellae
S. dublin (cattle) S. arizona (turkeys) S. choleraesuis (pigs)
S. pullorum (poultry) S. abortus ovis (sheep)
Widespread occurance in animals
most infections subclinical
raw products, meat often
reptiles a reservoir
S. typhi- ALWAYS associated with human rather than animal source
Paratyphoid and typhoid
non-zoonotic
maintained in carrier humans
Campylobacter jejuni
most common in the US
most will self cure
contaminated milk or water
poultry also a source
Shigella
very low infective dose
E. coli
enterohemorrhagic strains
most infections from undercooked beef also fruit juice and milk
direct human to human
Listeria monocytogenes
pregnant women and newborns at risk
weak immune systems- AIDS, cancer, etc.
contaminated vegetables, meat and dairy
**growth at refrigerator temp**
Yersinia entercolitica
mimics appendicitis, misdiagnosed as Crohn's dz
animal sources, pigs, birds,cats, dogs
**grows at refrigerator temp**
other bacterial sources of foodborne illness that have domestic animal origin
Brucella
Mycobacgterium
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
prion
was problem in IK
CJD
CWD
fungi associated with foodborne illness
ergotism
mushroom poisoning
aflatoxin
ochratoxin
Parasites associated with foodborne illness
Trichinosis
Toxoplasmosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Most common and infectious food borne virus
Norwalk virus (Norovirus)
Food-borne pathogen that is most often associated with seafood
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
critical temp range outside of which most food-borne pathogens cannot grow
4.4C to 60C
water activity
amount of water available to the microorganism, no multiplication below 0.6
affect the ability of heat to kill a bacterium
preventing chemical alteration
adulterated food
violative concentration
residues
additives
feed additives
Four methods of stunning allowed under federal law
captive cobalt guns
rifle with live ammo- .22
electric stunning
CO2
humane slaughter regulations
dont make animals move faster than walking speed
limit area so that blow delivered properly
free of pain producing parts, no slippery surfaces, stunning complete before shackling, bleeding and hoisting
antimicrobial resistance
use of agents for any infection, real or feared, in any dose and over any tiume, forces microbes and parasites to adapt or die
CDC, FDA, WHO, USDA
International Office of Epizootics (OIE)
makes the disease code list
attempts to standardize diagnostics
List A
Communicable disease that have the potential for very serious and rapid spread.
of major importance in international trade
List B
Communicable disease that are considered to be of socioeconomic or public health sig. within countries and are sig. in international trade of livestock and livestock products
List C
Communicable disease that are important economic influence at the individual production level
Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
prevents the entrance of FAD into the United States
Regulation
African Swine Fever
Asfivirus
natural reservoir- warthog and soft ticks, forest hog, bush pigs
hog cholera
Pestivirus
eradicated in US
wild pigs may not be a reservoir
pig only known host
Food and Mouth Disease
Aphtovirus, Piconiviridaem
**most acute and communicable disease of cloven foot animals
BTD in California
Rinderpeste
associated with movement of cattle
Morbillivirus
cattle, buffaloes, deer, camels, sheep and goats, occassionally swine
Heartwater
Ehrlichia rumantium
tick transmitted by the bont tick A. variegatum on Caribbean islands
domestic ungulates and antelope, WTD
African horse sickness
Orbivirus
vector borne- culicoides
reservoir- zebras
affects domestic equines
Fowl Plague (highly virulent avian influenza)
wild birds are the natural reservoir
public health concerns from birds to people
Velogenic Viscerotrophic Newcastle Disease
Rubulavirus
high mortality
imported psittacines
common in wild birds
virulent forms in pigeons and double breasted cormorants
Biological warfare agents
Bacillus anthracis
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Yersinia pestis
Salmonella typhimurium
Vibrio cholerae
Botulinum
Smallpox
Ebola virus
Avian influenza viruses
West Nile
Clostridium
Mycobacterium bovis
WTD in Michigan
spillover in wild carnivores and cattle
Mycoplasma galisepticum
house finches
previously only in domestic poultry
conjunctivitis and death
spilling over in wild passerine species including gold finches, purple finches, and grosbeak
What types of changes can cause disease problems?
new vectors
new pathogens
new or modified host populations
new habitats for pathogen-host interations
introduction of new pathogens
translocation of animals
domestic animals/wildlife interactions
human/wildlife interaction
movement of vectors
Disease of lemurs on St. Catherines
Trypanosoma cruzi
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
E. chaffeenis
Clinical signs of tularemia in rabbits
white necrotic foci on liver and spleen
necrosis and abscessation of lymph nodes
localized cutaneous and subcutaneous inflammation
Types of Tularemia disease in humans
ulceroglandular
typhoidal
pneumonic
conjunctival
oropharyngeal/GI
meningitis
examples of translocating animals
raccoons- rabies in NE
foxes- tapeworms, distemper
prarie dogs- plague
deer- meningeal worms, Wassaw
bullfrog- Chytridiomycosis and amphibian declines, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
domestic animal/wildlife interactions
mycobacterium bovis from cattle to wildlife
canine distemper
rabies
toxoplasmosis
CWD in elk and deer
new vectors introduced
exotic ticks on tortoises
avian malaria in hawaii
WNV and Culex
change in population distribution
pseudorabies and Brucella suis and feral swine movements
M. bovis and supplemental feeding of deer in Michagin
B. abortus in Yellowstone
changes in species distribution
seals- Phocine morbilliviruses