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5 Cards in this Set

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What is Selection (Sampling) Bias?
The sample population chosen is not representative of the population at risk. An appropriate spectrum of patients were not included in the study (e.g. patients with advanced disease were compared with healthy nondiseased patients.
Measurement Bias?
Being studied can affect outcome. Also how you measure can affect outcome.
Confounding Bias?
Occurs when two factors are closely associated and the effects of one confuses or distorts the effects of the other factor on the outcome. The distorting factor is a confounding variable. Knowledge (factor) is measured by scores on standardized exams. An unmeasured factor (confounding variable) is test taking ability on standardized exams.
Gold Standard?
Accepted reference standard or diagnostic test for a particular illness.
Sensitivity?
The probability of the test finding disease among those who have the disease or the proportion of people with disease who have a positive test result.