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20 Cards in this Set
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define continuous variable

a variable that can have any value


define categorical variable

a variable that can only have a certain number of specific values (breed, sex etc)


What data values can be used with normally distributed data?

mean, standard deviation, mode, median, range, quartiles


What data values can be used with skewed data?

mode, median, range, quartiles


what is nominal categorical data?

no inherent relationship between categories (breed, sex etc)


what is ordinal categorical data?

there is an ordering or ranking within the category (BCS, grade of a heart murmur)


what is a P value?

tells how likely the results of a study are due to chance


what P value is generally considered significant?

p<= 0.05


What is a type I error?

the study groups are not different, but we erroneously conclude they are


What is a type II error?

the study groups are different, but we erroneously conclude they are not


What is alpha?

the probability of making a type I error


what is beta?

the probability of making a type II error


What is power, in relation to statistical analysis?

ability to detect a difference between groups when there is a difference
power = 1beta 

What factors influence power?

# of animals in the study
magnitude of the difference between groups variability of measurements 

When is low power a concern?

when a statistical significance could not be found
could indicate that there is a relationship but the study was unable to detect it 

What is a confidence interval?

indicate the reliability of an estimate


What level are confidence intervals usually calculated at?

95%
*can also be at 90, 99, 99.9 etc 

What is survival analysis?

measures the time to an event
eg: death, calving, development of clinical signs, disease, discharge 

What curve is used in survival analysis?

KaplanMeier


What is censoring?

the animal hasn't had the outcome by the end of the study or is lost to follow up, and therefore the survival time is unknown
