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19 Cards in this Set

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What is the difference between exercise physiology and sport physiology?
Ex phys is the study of how the body reacts when it is exposed to exercise and homeostasis is challenged

Sport phys is the application of ex phys to the training and athletic enhacement of an athlete
Name the three Nobel Prize winners whose research work involved muscle or muscular exercise
Hill, Krebs, Gorgyi, Meyerhoff, Krogh
What was the role of the Harvard Fatigue Lab in the history of exercise physiology at the UofM
We recruited Ancel Keys from there
Differentiate acute and chronic training
Acute- an individual bout of exercise and the body's immediate responses to it

Chronic- the body's adaptations as a result of regular exercise over several weeks
What is homeostasis?
maintenence of a constant internal environment
Which is more accurate- cross sectional or longitudinal studies?
Longitudinal, more variables can be easily controlled
An individual muscle cell is called a ________________ and is enclosed by a _______________________.
an individual muscle cell is called a MUSCLE FIBER and is enclosed by a PLASMA MEMBRANE called the SARCOLEMMA
The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called _______________.
a sarcoplasm
How are substances transported through a muscle fiber's sarcoplasm?
Through the extensive network of t-tubules
Where is calcium stored in a muscle cell?
In the sarcoplasmic reticulum
What is a thin filament composed of?
actin, tropomyosin, and troponin
What is an alpha motor neuron?
a neuron that connects with an innervates many muscle fibers
What is a motor unit?
A single alpha motor neuron and all the fibers it supplies
What are the events that lead up to muscle contraction?
1. Neuron releases ACh at the neuromuscular junction

2. It binds to receptors on the sarcolemma and opens the Na ion gates, depolarizing the membrane

3. An AP is transmitted along the sarcolemma and t-tubules, triggering the release of Ca++ from the SR

4. The Ca++ binds to troponin on the actin filament

5. Troponin then pulls tropomyosin off the active sites, allowing the myosin heads to attach to the active sites on the actin filament

Tilting of the myosin head/sliding of the filaments= power stroke
What is summation?
the summing of all the individual changes in a neuron's membrane potential
What is tetanus?
highest tension developed by a muscle in response to stimulation of increasing frequency

twitch-->summation-->tetanus
What detemines the distribution of muscle fiber type in an individual?
Genetics...it is determined by the alpha motor NEURON that innervates the fibers
What is the difference between type I and type II fibers?
Type I has a slow form of myosin ATPase, Type II has a fast form and a more developed SR
What is motor unit recruitment?
Units are recruited in order smallest first: type I--> type IIa --> type IIx

all or none response

activating more motor units= greater force