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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Why was there "no water in the ocean" on April Fool’s Day in 1946?
trough came first, classic danger sign – people thought it was April fool's prank
What happened to the parking meters after the 1960 tsunami in Hawaii?
bent them in half
Is a tsunami easily detectable in the open ocean?
no, crest only rises a foot or more
How did the sheltered side of an Indonesian Island receive the greatest damage during a tsunami in 1992?
tsunami wrapped around the island to twice as high when it hit again
Which country suffers the greatest number of fatalities from tsunami?
Japan
What was the maximum height above sea level (run-up) reached by the 1933 tsunami in Japan?
95ft
How does the tide gauge located in Taro, Japan monitor sea level?
bounces a super sonic signal

measures unusual activity like sea level rise
What caused the ancient tsunami in Scotland?
vast underwater landslide on Norway coast
What caused the “Greatest Historical Tsunami”?
meteorite off Gulf Coast
What was the evidence that the fault scarp was recent?
vertical cliff of mud in just past few months, rough sawtoothed edge – so its recent, no biological activity has formed yet
What was the total vertical displacement measured?
40 feet
Over what horizontal distance along the fault did displacement occur?
750 miles
Note how the tsunami wraps around the peninsula in the model.
bounces off edge, wraps around, peninsula protects stuff behind it, then hits far shore
Can the passing of a tsunami be detected in the deep ocean floor, several kilometers below sea surface? How?
yes, tsunami buoys, bottom pressure recorders a few miles below surface send wave data to satellite from floating buoys
What is the equivalent height of an actual wave being modeled by a 4-foot wave in a wave tank?
88 ft monster wave
What is Pangea?
giant supercontinent, stretched unbroken from pole to pole
What is the strongest erosive force on the planet?
water
How long will it be before the sun removes all life from the surface of the planet?
5 billion years
What is the name of the geological period at 65 million years before present?
Cretaceous
How big was the Atlantic 65 million years ago?

What period is this?
half as wide

Cretaceous
What is the name of the geological period at 152 million years before present?
Jurassic
What was the Earth's climate like 152 million years ago?

what period is that?
warm, tropical – no ice caps, no flowers or broad leaved trees

Jurassic
What is the name of the geological period at 220 million years before present?
Triassic
What major group of reptiles evolved 220 million years ago?

What period is this?
dinosaurs

Triassic
In which direction in time do you travel as you travel upstream along the Red Dear River?
going up in time
Which extinction gave rise to the dinosaurs?
Permian
How long did dinosaurs roam America?
160 million years
How long does it take for material from the Oort cloud to get to the inner solar system?
1 million years
How long does it take our solar system to travel around the galaxy and up and down through the galaxy?
around 250 million, up and down every 30 million
In terms of area, how big was the explosion caused by comet Shoemaker Levy 9 on the surface of Jupiter?
bigger than our entire planet
How many stars are there in our galaxy?
400 thousand million stars
400,000 000,000
On avg, how long do species (not individuals) exist on Earth?
few million years
4 million