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30 Cards in this Set

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How does temp affect enzyme activity?
increases in temp will denature protein and destroy active site and decrease activity (control growth)
What is needed to start a reaction?
activation energy
Ex AB + CD --- Ac + BD
---- = activation energy
metabolism add comp #3
requirement for both co-enzyme and co-factor, one or other, or neither
metabolism additional components #1
organic but not protein, derived from vitamins may be able to leave enzyme and return
How does substrate concentratin affect enzyme activity?
increase in s = increase in p until enzyme becomes saturated. E occupied by either s or p continusoly. Therefore increases of s will not increase the amount of p.
How does the presence of inhibitors affect the enzyme activity?
competitive structure similar to s therefore competitive inhibitor can fit into the active site --- no product but you do prevent the s from binding to the active site therefore decreased activity.
lock and key model
e = lock, s = key, active site = area on e where s binds (works in milliseconds at a time)
non-competitive inhibitors
inhibitors bind enzyme at allosteric site --- change 3-D shape of enzyme and destroy active site, often the end product of a biechemical pathway also called feedback inhibition
phorolation
making of ATP
anabolism
biosynthesis requires: energy source, building block source, reducing power
catabolism
oxidation, breaking down substrate
Metabolism
all chemical reactionsin living cells
metabolism chatacteristics
greatly increase speed of chemical reaction, very specific as to substrate (has to be 3-D fit)
intermediates int he pathway act as what
building blocks
ATP
2NADH2
ATP
Adoesine Triphosphate--primary energy source for all living cells
reduction
addition of electron of H or lose oxygen, more energy required
oxidation
loss of electrons of H of gain oxygen, release energy
nadp
nicotenamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NAD
nicoenamide adenine dinucleotide
enzyme equation
e = enzyme, s = substrate (acted on by enzyme) p = product (result of e acting on s)e + s --- es --- e + p
catalyst
increase speed of a chemical reaction by lowering the amount of activation energy needed
Reducing power
h & electrons released from oxidation reactions are accepted by coenzymes
What is readily usable energy in ATP
2 terminal phosphates bonds contain high energy ADP + PO4 --- ATP
chemoheterotroph
c - source, energy source oxidation of organic carbon
enzyme
biological catalyst
How does Ph affect enzyme activity
extremes of ph will denature proteins loose 3-D shape and therefore destroy active site therefore decreasing activity of enzyme (decrease amount of p)
biosynthesis
co-enzymes derived from vitamins
Naming
_____ase (suffix + ase)
function + ase
substrate + function + ase
metabolism add comp #2
metal ion Cu Fe (cofactor) permanently part of e
Glycoses
glucose splitting glucose