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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
carrying capacity
"ecosystem's upper limit" (p.4) - i.e., how much life the ecosystem can sustain given its resources
"subfield of biology that strives to explain the interrelationships among people, other living things, and their environments" (p.1)
"any group of plants, animals, or nonliving things interacting within their external environment" (p.1)
steady state/ homeostatis
"level of activity within an ecosystem that can be maintained over a long period of time" (p.4)
spaceship earth
analogy of earth's ecosystem to a spaceship; "planet must work with what it has. When certain resources are exhausted or converted into a form in which they are no longer useful to humans, new supplies cannot simply be imported from 'somewhere else.'" (p.2)
managing resources "to maintain a steady state"; limiting resource use "to a point where it does not threaten the regenerative capacity of natural systems" (p.4)
any group of plants, animals, or nonliving things interacting within in external environment. recieves energy from the sun.
spaceship earth
used to describe the earths relationship with the external environment. the earth must work with what it has- you cannot simply get more resources.
Barry Commoners 4 laws of ecology
1. everthing is connected to everything else
2. everything must go somewhere
3. humans tinker with nautral systems will ultimately prove detrimental to those systems
4. There is no such thing as a free lunch.
everything is connected to everything else
multiple interconnected parts. it is difficults, if not impossible to manipulate on aspect of an ecosystem without impacting, often unintentually other aspects of the ecosystem. When an ecosystem is disrupted by the introduction of a forign element, changes occur in the relationship between organisms within the system as well as between organisms and their physical environment.
everything must go somewhere
spaceship earth. it may be the atmosphere, or water. cars--atmosphere. some policys ignore this rule
humans tinkering with nautral systems will ultimately prove detrimental to those systems
ecosystem has developed throught natural selection for billions of years. The interactions within natural systems sometimes present a very delicate balace, and interfering can disrupt that system.
there is no such thing as a free lunch
any interaction with nature, any extraction, use, or disruption carries with it some cost. (loss of resource..)
steady state
that level of activity within an ecosystem that can be maintained over a long period of time. The upper limit that can be sustained.
dominant social paradigm (DSP)
those clusters of beliefs, values, and ideals that influence our thinking about society, government, and individual responsibility. acceptance of laissez-faire capitalism, individualism, growth, progress, faith in science and technology. It can influence policy.
can be positive or negative. Transactions do not always incorporate the full range of cost and benefirs associated with the prodcution or distrubtuion of goods.(cost of pollution cleanup is an example)
multiple use or the management of resources so as to retun the maximum benefits for people. limit human impact on national parks.
purposive benefits
associated with ideological gaols without indivudual meterial reward
material b enefits
such as the expected increase in incolme that induces many to join proessional associates
solidarity benefits
the social rewards one can expect from interaction with a group pf people with whom one shares interest.
The tragedy of the commons by Garrett Hardin
influenctial essay dtew attention ot theproblesm associated with comoon pool resources. shawing a coomon green, somepoeople overgrazed it and it ended up being destoryed for everyone else.
involentary risk
risks over which the individual has not contrl. in these situations government organziations, or other thrid parties make the assesment of risk for society as a whole.
acceptable risk
the personal decisions and trade-offs that indivuiduals are willing to amke in their own lives.
bubble concept
allowed manufacturing plants to to determine their own mix of pollutants admittted into the atmosphere from a given plant. allows polluter to choose the areas withinh a plant on which to concentrate their pollution control efforts.
private property preeminence
derived from English common law. gives the property owner the right to pollute his or her own land as much as he or she wishes as long as the pollution doesnt carry over onto anothers property
common law private property rights
allows the indivuidual to sue whatever resources are on theland to whatever extent desire. regardless of the impact on adjacent landwowvers.
administrative law
the laws that pertain to, and govern, administration and bureaucratic government actions.
Exhaustive Doctrine
requires that polluters, or others contesting regulations, seek every available avenue of appeal within the administrative agency before going to the court.
judicial review
determines which cases the court will and willnot hear
scope of review
concerns which parts of the relevant administrative actions the court will address. some statutes may have provisions that define their specific scope of review, though scope may also be found in similar statures, as well as rprior court findings
standards of review
define the degree of scrutiny that the court may take in examining a challenged agency action. may be defined withing the relevant statutue. may be define in piror court findings. courts may defer to agency disceretionor expertise in adjudicationg challenges to agencey acyions. exception is are agncey action taht are clearly without legal foundation, actions that are arvitrary and acpricious, and actions that are not supported by susbtanitive evidence.
judicial standing
who can and cannot bring a suit before the court for judical review. must prove 1. they have a concrete interest in the matter before the court
2. the court must be able to remedy the situaiton in some way
imminent injury
requirement for judicial review that youi were personally injured by the action in question.
three basic mechanisisms of environmentall law
the foundation of enviromental law and regulation require the presence of:
1. established legistlative prolices and directives
2. prescirbed mehtods of executing these policies and directives.
3. prescribed methods of resolving disputes that arise form the execution of policies and directives.
what are the three competeing models of government regulation
1. economic theory of regulation
2. political incentives
3. public interest theory of regulation
The economic theory of regualtion
George Stigler, holds that regulations are driven by the needs of business and are acquried, designed, and perated primarly for the benefit of buinsess in a meanner that protects the profits and competitive enviroment of regulated business. "self interest theory"
political incentives
James Q. Wilson- regulations are best understod as rising out of ___ _____ that operate on policy makers. Examing the cost and benefits associated with different regulations and their distruvitons, we can determine under which conditions government is more likely to regulate industy. if benedfits are concentraed and costs diffused, the organized groups are likely to persuade policy makers to regulate and therby insitutionalize the benefit.
public interest theory of regulation
hold that polcy makers regulate in response to broad social movements or crisis situations and act to protect the public fom undesrirable business practices.
various types of government control?
1. free market
2. use of market forces with some government controls
3. government controls on the state and loal level
4. government controls developed on the nation level and implemented onm the state and local levels
5. controls developed and implemented on the national level-total national control
free market
there is no role for government in environmental protection. self-interest provides the necessary safe gards
utlization of market forces
implement controls by using market mechanisims to prodcue desired outocmes. through tax incentives or pollution charges. buble concept.
government contorls on the state and local level
state and local contorl over environmental regulations forumualtion and implementation.
government controls developed on the national level and implented on the state and local level-total national control
formulated by national government implemented by state government. total-limitly used, like nuclear power.
approaches to regulation
1. free market
2. standards and enforcement or command and control
3. use of taxes or effluent charges or some toher type of monetrary measure that would provide polluters with an incentive to find the most cost-effective means of limiting their pollution
4. establishing property rights in the commons.
free market options
a reliance on self-interst and volunteerism with no government intervention to correct for common pool resource problesm
standards and enforcement/ command and control
some govermental unti deterimnes what the appropriate level of a given pollutant or activity is, sets the stands, and establishies a way to encorce these standars.
use of taxes
provide polluters wiht an incentive to find the most cost-efficient means of limiting their polution
establishing property rights in the commons
give individuals a stake in the appropriate use and management of their now rprivate resources. common property
intuitive toxicology
leads to unsupportable fears. emotions lead them astray. do not see the need for trade off vuneralbe to social influences
second generation debate
involves the nature of cost benefit analysis, what in particular it entails, its limit. rights and interests of future generations.
gas for cars-wantimproves combusition and reduces carvon dioixde emmissions.- increases formaldehyed e emsssions, more toixc, highl soluvle in water. contriainmed water-dangerous to drink. perhaps a carcinogen
3 points of concensus on the use of cost-benefit anaylsis
1. government should attempt to asses the magnituted of any problem that it is attempting to slove
2. gobt shoudl attmetp to asses tradeoffs by explolring the costs of regulation aslo in quantitiative terms.
3 governement should use tools that are effectient and inexpensive.
executive order 12291
1. a set of substanitive priniples for all agneicesto floowl including a commitmetn to cost benefit anlayisis 2. require cost benefit analaysis for all major rules 3. omb has some substantive control. companies were asked to voletntiarly comply- all denited.
estblsihed a requirement that agencies submit annual regulatory planst to OMB for reivew. annual publication of actions that might be costly or controversial
no big impact under clinton. requring agencies to do a cost-benefit anyalsis and proceed only when benefits outwieght the costs.
paralysis by analsis
congressional effort to ask and anser key qeustions might lead to inaction.
iron triangle/subgovernemnt
interest groups, buercrats, and legistatores become wedded in a sometimes useful someting not triangle of suppport and need. legislatrosr need bureaucrats to implement their plcies and are rewarded w/ funding, in turn bureaucrats rpvide electorial support by making interes groups happy and interes goups need bureaucrats to provie them wiht serives.
revolving door
p 48- retired military officlals get jobs in weapons industry for thier insdie track to the military and cogresses ear.
idea that polciy making occurs because mulitple intersted gorup bargain and negotitale competitively to mkake it.
1. only some possible alternatives are considered by decsions makers
2. option ultimatley selescted will differ onluy slighlty for exisisting policy
3 only a limited number of consequences for each alternative are evlaueted.
4 problem is contintually redefined.
the filaure of all groups and interst to be represented in the bargainsing and policy making process.
the listing of times for governmental acton
agenda setting
the ability to get your issue on the list of items to be taken up by polciy makers
policy making
invovles the deisred action or nonaction on a itme that has been place on the public agneda. any branch of govt.
turing a manadate into action
environmental assesment
must take into consideration the enviromental impacts of the total project .
envriomental impact statemetn
to accompnay major federal actions singnciantly affecting the human enviroment.. must contain the the affects, purpose and need for action, alternatives considered, irrevesrivle commitments or resources.
finding of no significant impact FONSI
found on an EIS- if no significnat impact is found on the environment- company may proceed w/ plans
determines the scope and breadth of an EIS. lead agency preparing EIS is responsible for identifying members of public and other agencies thqt may ahve an interest or stake in project under construction. mail notices study alternatives know geogrpahical paramaters of study areas
procedural policy
law that tells agencies what steps they have to take
substantive policy
tells agencies what they have to do
the overlapping of a problem
referrs to affected enviroment such as air, water and land.
what factors would influence a groupto pursue enviromental interest thought the courts?
if lenghtly lawsuit-maintain status quo, lawsuits take time,and money, jurisdictional issues.

lack resource to fight in other areas (legislature), want to challenge regulation
legistlative branch?
many points where a bill cna be defeated-must follow bill closely through each stage. legistatures motivated by desire for relection, money, access
executive branch?
administering federal environmeental regulations through a variety of federal agencies.
why do private economoic inters groups have an advantage in the policy process over public nonecomoinic interest groups
money, stability, make contributions which give them access
main institutional biases
1. incrementalism-small changes over time, easy to change if wrong, over time, no radical changes
2. decentralization- federal statutes implemented by state. state may not have recousres to carry it out, need coperation between various agnecys, dependent on reuglated industyrs, coperation accross statelines
3. short term bias- select option w/ lowest short term cost-need for relection
4. ideological bias- orientatoin toward gorwth and development undelrines much of thepolcy making process, rarely is zero growht an otion, find acceptable percetnalges.
5.private nature- many decsions made behind closed doors
6. crisi and reforms- procedure is faster. dont as picky about bills.
purpose of NEPA, national environmental policy act
exerted control over federal agencies in an attempt to make them more responsive to environmental concerns. use all practical means and measures to promote the general welfare, and maitnitiona ocntidtions under whihc man and nture can existin in producitve harmony for furture genertions
what does NEPA require agencies to do?
make agencies fil out EIS, analyze major actions affects on environment, fill out EA. most litigated
environmental protection agency EPA
the primary responsiblity for encorcing envronmental regulation in the US. organzied around programs over which congress has given it enforcement authority
department of interorir buerur of land managemetn
responsiblity over envriomnetla and land managesment. natioinal park services, wilderness planning
national park service
national parks, monuments, and reservcations to conserver scenery and hsitoric obejcts and the wildlife wihtin
forrest service
resourcing suisng timeber, miming, grazing. greatest good to greatest number in the long run.
fish and wildlife service
national wildlife feuges, waterfolw protection areas, fish hatcheries, fish and wildlife research labs. mostly in alaska
Depeartment of engery
focus on energy security, mainting the safey and reliality of nuclear stock pile, cleaning up the environmenta from legacy of cole war, developing innovation in science and technology.
environmental politics
concerns how humaninty organizes itselfto relate to the nature that sustain it
policy windows/ windows of oppertuntiy
policy changes more likely to occurr. opens for advoacates to promote their pet solutions.
1. result of legal decision. forces people to reexamine a policy
2. crisis focusing on event
broader convergenc on a single idea. support for an idea is widespread tipping point- seems to take on a life of its own
policy entrepreneurs
individuals willing to invest therir political resources in linking a problem to a solution and forging alliances among isparat actors to build a majorty coaliation. ride the wave when oppertunity opens
softeing up
getting people used to a new idea and vuilding acceptance for a proposal. speeches, articles, breifings, editorials, press relasesals.
what are kingdons three streams
1. people in and around government concentrate on a set of problems
2. policy communitiies made up of experts, journalist, and bureaucrats initiate and refine proposal;
3. political events sucha as a change of administration or an interest group campaing occur.
--tend to prefer making incremental changes. a substaincil departure from the status quo is likely only when the three streams merge, as a compelling problem defintion and an available solution come together under hoppitalbe politcla conditons.