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31 Cards in this Set

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What are four factors that affect plant growth in forest soils?
Topsoil depth, soil texture, limiting layers, drainage
What is topsoil depth?
topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil, affects amount of tree growth per year
What is soil texture?
Refers to the amount of sand, silt, and clay that the soil contains
What's a limiting layer?
layer that stops the roots of trees from extending downward further
What are limiting factors?
Things that limit the growth of living organisms within an ecosystem such as amount of precipitation, available sunlight, nutrients, spacing of trees, and number of organisms living in forest
What is an even-aged stand?
A stand of trees that varies little in age
What is the seedling stage?
from seed to 5-15 yrs, the beginning of the closing of a stand
What is the sapling stage?
From the closing of a stand to death of lower limbs and crowns well above the ground
What is the pole stage?
From sapling stage to limb clearing of most of the trunk and decline in height growth
What is the young timber stage?
from time of slowed height growth to full height growth
What is the mature timber stage?
From time of complete height growth to beginning of decline in quality and volume
What is an over mature timber stage?
from start of deterioration of the stand
What are dominant crowns?
crowns of larger trees, forming upper level of the canopy and receiving light from above and partially from the sides (emergent)
What are co-dominant crowns?
medium sized crowns that form the general crown cover or canopy and receive sunlight from above
What are intermediate crowns?
Small-crowned, shorter trees with crowns that just reach into the general canopy and receive little direct sunlight (understory)
What are overtopped crowns?
Small trees with crowns below the canopy, receiving no direct sunlight (oppressed or suppressed)
What are isolated crowns?
trees growing in the open with little or no competition
What is vertical stratification?
a forest containing trees of different sizes, different species, and in different layers of crown classification
What is the lowest layer of the forest ecosystem?
Forest floor
What is the second layer in the forest ecosystem?
understory
What is the top layer of the forest ecosystem?
Leaf canopy
What are two types of forests?
coniferous and deciduous, or softwood and hardwood
What are conifers?
gymnosperms, or plants that have naked seeds, not protected by a fruit
What are deciduous trees?
Angiosperms, or flowering plants. have flowers and enclose seeds in protective fruits
What are evergreen trees with needle-like or scale-like leaves, mostly bearing seed cones?
conifers
What percentage of trees in NC are coniferous?
33%
What are trees with broad leaves that they lose during one season of the year, usuall autumn?
deciduous (hardwoods)
What percentage of NC forests are hardwoods?
53%
How are old growth forests important?
provide unique homes to wide variety of wildlife species, often endangered
What percentage of NC forests do mixed stands or multi-stands make up?
14%
What is the limiting factor that determines how high a tree can grow?
gravity