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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abiotic factors
nonliving factors that influence the life and activities of an organism
biomass
any accumulation of organic material produce by living things
biotic factors
living portions of the environment
carbon cycle
the cyclic flow of carbon from the atmosphere to living organisms and back to the atmospheric reservoir
carnivore
animal that eats other animals
coevolution
two or more species of organisms that influence the evolution of each other
commensalisms
the relationship between two species where one organism is benefitted and the other is unaffected
community
interacting groups of different species
competition
interaction between two organisms in which both need the same resources, which results in harm to both
consumer
organism that uses other organisms as food
decomposer
small organisms that cause the decay of dead organic matter and recycle nutrients
dentrifying bacteria
bacteria that converts nitrogen compounds into nitrogen gas
detritus
tiny particles of organic material that result from fecal waste material or the decomposition of plants and animals
ecology
the interrelationship between organisms and their environment
ecosystem
a group of interacting species along with their physical environment
ectoparasite
a parasite that is adapted to live on the outside of its host
endoparasite
a parasite that is adapted to live on the inside of a host
environment
everything that affects an organism during its lifetime
evolution
a change in the structure, behavior, of physiology of a population of organisms as a result of some organisms with favorable characteristics having greater reproductive success than those organisms with less favorable characteristics
extinction
the death of a species
food chain
the series of organism involved in the passage of energy from one trophic level to another
free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that live in the soil and can convert nitrogen gas in the atmosphere into forms that plants can use
habitat
the place where a particular kind of organism lives
herbivore
an animal that eats plants
host
the organism a parasite uses for its source of food
interspecific competition
competition between members of different species for a limited resource
intraspecific competition
competition among members of the same species for a limited resource
keystone species
one that has a critical role to play in the maintenance of specific ecosystems
limiting factor
the one primary condition of the environment that determines the population size of an organism
mutualism
the association between organisms in which both benefit
mycorrhizae
root-fungus associations
natural selection
a process that determines which individuals within a species will reproduce more effectively and therefor results in changes in the characteristics within a species
niche
the total role an organism plays in its ecosystem
nitrogen cycle
the series of stages in the flow of nitrogen in ecosystems
nitrifying bacteria
bacteria that are able to convert ammonia to nitrite which can be converted to nitrate
nitrogen-fixing bacteria
bacteria that are able to convert the nitrogen gas in the atmosphere into forms that plants can use
omnivore
animal that eats both plants and animals
parasite
an organism adapted to survival by using another living organism for nourishment
parasitism
when a parasite lives in or on another animal to get nourishment while harming the host
predation
when one organism kills and eats another organism
predator
an animal that kills and eats another organism
prey
an organism that is killed by the predator
primary consumer
an animal that eats plants directly
producer
an organism that can manufacture food from inorganic compounds and light energy
range of tolerance
the anility that organisms have to survive under certain conditions
secondary consumer
animals that eat animals that have eaten plants
speciation
the process of developing new species
species
a groupd of organisms that can interbreed and produce offspring capable of reproduction
symbiosis
a close, long-lasting physical relationship between members of two different species
symbiotic nitrogen- fixing bacteria
bacteria that grow within a plant's root system and that can convery nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to nitrogen compounds that the plant can use
trophic level
a stage in the energy flow through ecosystems
vector
an organism that carries a disease from one host to another