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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ecological Footprint is the

1
Ecological Footprint is the amount of land required to support an individuals way of life.
Global Atmospheric Changes refer to

2
Global Atmostpheric Changes refer to global warming and the hole in the o-zone layer. The Burning of fossil fuels, cow flatulence, and deforestation contribute to global warming.
Sustainability is the

3
Sustainability is the ability live in a way that does not cause the Earth's resources to become depleted..
Sustainable Development refers to

4
Sustainable Development referst to the development of things that do not cause the Earth's resources to become depleted. (Solar Panels, 1.6 Gallon Toilets, Hybrid Vehicles)
Environmental Racism is the placement

5
Environmental Racism is the placement of waste treatment facilities in neighborhoods that are primarily non-white.
Sound Science is the using of

6
Sound Science is the using of proper, peer-reviewed scientific analysis to guide your decisions regarding treatment of the environment.
Ecosystem Capital is the

7
Ecosystem Capital is the sum of goods and services provided by natural or managed ecosystems.
Globalization is the

8
Globalization is the interconnectedness of human activities and cultures
Law of Limiting Factors are the

9
Law of Limiting Factors are the laws that limit growth. Any one factor being outside the optimal range will cause stress and limit growth, reproduction, and even the survival of a population.
Producers take energy from

10
Producers take energy from the sun, store it, and use it to grow. Consumers eat the Producers. Detritus Feeders and Decomposers eat dead producers and consumers.
The S-Curve represents

11
The S-Curve represents an equillibrium, stable type of population that has enough predators to keep the population down and enough producers to keep it up.
The J-Curve represents

12
The J-Curve represents a large population explosion. Such an explosion will eventually cause the population to crash due to using up too many resources.
Biotic Potentail refers to

13
Biotic Potential refers to the ability of a species to increase in number through a strong reproductive rate, the ability to migrate, and the ability to cope with diverse conditions.
Environmental Resistance refers to

14
Environmental Resistance refers to things in nature that cause a species to decrease in number due to predators, parasites, diesease, lack of water, etc.
Keystone Species are a

15
Keystone Species are a species whose role is essential for the survivability of other organisms in the ecosystem. Starfish feeding on Mussels.
Natural Selection is the

16
Natural Selection is the process by which species either adapt to meet certain challenges or die off. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST.
Selective Pressure refers to

17
Selective Pressure refers to the pressures that push against a species and cause them to evolve and thus survive. Girrafes become larger to eat leaves of taller trees.
Limits of Change refers to the

18
Limits of Change refers to the options a species has when faced with selective pressures. A Species may either Adapt, Migrate, or become Extinct.
Reasons for Patterns of Human Growth are

19
Reasons for Patterns of Human Growth are excellent medications, cleaner drinking water, more access to food, etc.
Affluent Consumption refers to

20
Affluent Consumption refers to the desire to buy more than we really need.
The Debt Crisis of Developing Countries refers to

21
The Debt Crisis of Developing Countries refers to the fact that many developing countries are stuck paying wealthy countries back for loans wealthy countries have given them. Due to this, developing countries cannot focus on the things they need to relieve their own poverty.
Water Cycle/Hydrologic Cycle refers to

22
Water Cycle/Hydrologic Cycle refers to the fact that water is in a cycle that aims to preserve fresh water.
Negative Aspects of Dams
(DOS, S, AOTWC, IOSIS, CE)

23
Negative Aspect of Dams include the dying off of salmon, sedimentation, alteration of the water cycle, an increase of salts in the soil, and the changing of ecosystems.
Positive Aspects of Dams

24
Positive Aspects of Dams include the production of Hydroelectric Power, Recreation, conservation of water, and irrigation of fields.
Infiltration is the ability of

25
Infiltration is the ability of rain to enter the ground and replenish the aquifer and underground water supply.
Runoff occurs when

26
Runoff occurs when rain is prevented from going into the ground. This, in turn, causes flooding, which means the aquifer is not recharged, and the water cycle is accelerated to a degree that it cannot be recharged either.
Water Treatment refers to

27
Water Treatment refers to the ability to sanitize water to the point where it can be safely drunk.
Some undeveloped contries do not have access to

28
Some undeveloped countries do not have access to Water Treatment Facilities and use a local river as a source of water. River is also used as a bathroom.
The Effects of Ground Water Depletion include
FWT,DSW,LS,SI

29
The Effects of Ground Water Depletion include falling water tables, diminishing surface water, land subsidence, and saltwater intrusion.
Falling Water Tables refers

30
Falling Water Tables refers to underground water supplies being depleted by irrigation. Diminishing Surface Water is caused by falling water tables and the dying off of springs and streams that feed surface waters. As water is depleted, the land begins to sink further into the ground. Saltwater Intrusion is caused when the freshwater that keeps saltwater out coastal drinking water is used to such an extent that freshwater pressure can no longer keep the saltwater out of the water supply.
Desalinization referst to

31
Desalinization refers to the purification of saltwater into freshwater. Expensive, but the water in the ocean can never be used up.
70% of the World's Water and 85% of America's Water is used for

32
70% of the World's Water and 85% of America's Water is used for irrigation purposes.
Drip Irrigation is a

33
Drip Irrigation is a non-wasteful form of irrigation that uses 30-70% less water than standard irrigation.
The World Population is

34
The World Population is 6 Billion. The world population Growth per year is 80 million. The expected world population by 2052 will be 9 billion.
1.2 Billion people live in

35
1.2 Billion People live in extreme poverty.
Highly Developed Countries make up

36
Highly Developed Countries make up 16% of the population and control 81% of the wealth.
Low Income Countries make up

37
Low Income Countries make up 41% of the population and control 3.4% of the wealth.
98% of population growth is in the

38
98% of population growth is in the developing countries.
The United States makes up

39
The United States makes up 5% of the world's population and produces 24% of the world's CO2 Emissions.
The 5 Areas of Social Modernization include

40
The 5 Areas of Social Modernization include: Improving Education, Improving Health through Safe Sex and AIDS awareness, Family Planning, Employment and Income, and Resource Management.
The Grameen Bank was created by

41
The Grameen Bank was created by Muhammad Yunus and encouraged microlending to the poor. Microlending are small loans that average 67 dollars per loan. They are short term loans lasting anywhere from 4-6 months.
The Poverty Cycle is the cycle

42
The Poverty Cycle is the cycle by which people become locked in poverty. POVERTY causes people to overuse resources for survival. Overusing resources causes ENVIRONMENTAL DEGREDATION. This, in turn, causes families to want to increase their size to help them out in a depleted environment. A lack of contraceptives and illiteracy complicate this even further. High Fertility causes dwindiling resources to be divided among even more people.
California instituted a

43
California instituted a tiered pricing structure in which farmers are charged the customary fee for the first 90% of their average water usage and much higher prices for the remaining 10%. Farmers in California have conserved 9-31% more water because of this policy and crop yields have not been affected at all.
Soil Texture is determined by the

44
Soil Texture is determined by the mineralogical components of soil--sand, silt, and clay. The texture of a soil determines its organic potential. AVG. 40% Sand, 40% Silt, 20% Clay
The 7 components of soil fertility include

MN,NHC,W,WHC,A,PH,S

45
The 5 components of soil fertility include Mineral Nutrients, Nutrient-holding capacity, Water, Water Holding Capacity, Aeration, PH, and salt content.
Nutrient and Nutrient-holding Capacity refer to

46
Nutrient and Nutrient-holding Capacity refer to leaching and fertilizer. Leaching occurs when nutrients are washed away from the soil as water moves through it. Leaching lessens soil fertility and its ability to hold nutrient ions when they are absorbed by roots--known as Nutrient-holding Capacity.
Fertilizer is used to

47
Fertilizer is used to replenish nutrients in the soil.
Organic Fertilizer includes

48
Organic Fertilizer includes plant or animal wastes, sometimes both, manure, and compost. Compost is rotted organic material.
Inorganic Fertilizers are

49
Inorganic Fertilizers are chemical formulations of required nutrients--without any organic matter included. Inorganic Fertilizers are much more prone to leaching than organic fertilizers.
Water and Water-holding Capacity refers to

50
Water and Water-holding Capacity refers to the soil's ability to hold water after it infiltrates. Evaporative Water loss depletes the soils water reservoir without serving the needs of plants.
Transpiration is the process

51
Transpiration is the process of water being aborbed by plants, passing through the plant, and exiting as water vapor through microscopic pores in the leaves.
Aeration involves the soil being

52
Aeration involves the soil being loose and porous enough to allow the diffusion of oxygen into the soil and carbon dioxide out of the sil.
The PH range refers to the

53
The PH range refers to the acidity or alkalinity of any solution in the soil. Different plants are adapted to different PH ranges.
Salt refers to the

54
Salt refers to the salt content in the soil. Too much irrigation results in evaporation that causes salts to build up in the soil.
The Soil Food Web includes

SB,H,C,SS

55
Soil Biology, Humus, Compost, and Soil Structure.
Soil Biology affects all

56
Soil Biology affects all components of soil fertility.
Humus is a layer

PSFE,IA,PAPMTS

57
Humus is a layer of top leaves that protect the soil from erosion, increases aeration, and promotes a productive and moist top-soil.
Compost is the process of

58
Compost is the process of taking organic matter such as leaves and breaking them down into soil.
Soil Structure is the arrangement of

59
Soil Structure is the arrangement of soil particles. A loose structure is ideal for infiltration.
Overcultivation occurs when

60
Overcultivation occurs when people work the land so much that the soil becomes exhausted and plant growth becomes impossible.
Overgrazing occurs when

61
Overgrazing occurs when animals eat nearly all the plants in the area, thus exposing the soil to erosion.
Deforestation occurs when

62
Deforestation occurs when there is a massive removal of trees in a given area.
Public Lands are lands

63
Public Lands are lands used for grazing animals. Users must make sure that the animals don't overgraze the land.
Irrigation can sometimes lead to

64
Irrigation can sometimes lead to salinzation when large-scale evaporation occurs.
Salization occurs when

65
Salization occurs when salts build up in the soils due to evaporation from irrigation. Irrigated water supplies leach salt from the ground and deposit it in the fields when evaporating.
Farm Subsidies are

66
Farm Subsidies are funds the U.S. government gives to farmers. This allows farmers to sell crops at prices that are cheaper than production costs. It is bad because these crops are sold overseas and bankrupt foreign farmers because their governments don't subsidize farms.
The Goals of Sustainable Agriculture are to
(MPTS, KFSAW, RCFAP, KFEV)

67
The Goals of Sustainable Agriculture are to: Maintain a productive topsoil, Keep food safe and wholesome, Reduce chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and Keep farms economically viable.
The Neolithic Revolution occurred
68
The Neolithic Revolution occurred 12,000 years ago and introduced agriculture and animal husbandry.
The Industrial Revolution occurred

69
The Industrial Revolution occurred in the 1800s and made farming more mechanized and efficient.
The Green Revolution involved

70
The Green Revolution involved hybridizing plants to increase crop yields.
Subsistence Farming involves people who

71
Subsistence Farming involves people who farm just for themselves.
As Farming Advanced, there was a shift

72
As Farming Advanced, there was a shift from animals to machinery, meaning dependence on fossil fuel.
The Negative Effects of Factory Farms include

73
The Negative Effects of Factory Farms include not taking care of cow manure and allowing it to leech into the water supply. Cows at factory farms also eat grain, not grass, meaning more water is used to make the grain. Also, antibiotics are given to the animals--meaning humans may become increasingly resistant to antibiotics.
The Heifer Project was to designed to

74
The Heifer Project was designed to empower people in poverty by providing them animals to raise.
Climate Change for Chapter 9 involves

75
Climate Change for Chapter 9 involves Deforestation releasing carbon into the atmosphere and cow manure releasing 3% of the gases that contribute to global warming.
The Effects of Meat Consumption include

76
The Effects of Meat Consumption include crop land being dedicated to the growing of grain, and gases from cow flatulence.
A Genetically Modified Organism is a

77
A Genetically Modified Organism is a plant that has been crossbred with genetically different plants to incorporate the desired traits into crop lines and animals.
The Benefits of Genetically Modified Organisms include

78
The Benefits of Genetically Modified Organisms include crops that are more healthy for humans and animals than ever before.
The Drawbacks of Genetically Modified Organisms include

79
The Drawbacks of Genetically Modified Organisms include the fact that genetically modified organisms have only been around for a short period of time, and scientist don't know the long term side effects of eating them. Also, genetically modified plants are spreading quickly across the world, endangering natural plants.
Grain is the

80
Grain is the most important foodstuff on the market. The Most important grains are Wheat, Rice, and Corn. Grain production has been increased to support a growing demand for meat.
Poverty is the root

81
Poverty is the root cause of hunger.
Food Security has three

82
Food Security has three levels of responsibilty: Family, National, and Global.
Developing Countries Need

DR, COTI, EOFS, GL

83
Developing Countries Need debt relief, correction of trade imbalances, an end to farm subsidies, and good leadership.
Globally, 1.2 billion people are

84
Globally 1.2 billion people are overweight.
Poor Nutrition causes

85
Poor Nutrition causes malnutrition, disease, and death.
1.2 Billion people live in a state of

I,RIRA,SHOIOF,RRTR,TIPC,HFR
86
1.2 Billion people live in a state of absolute poverty. These people are illiterate, reside in rural areas, spend half or more of their income on food, represent races-tribes-or religions that are discriminated against, are trapped in a poverty cycle that leads to the degradation of resources, and have high fertility rates.
The Causes of Famine include

87
The Causes of Famine include drought and conflict.
Food aid assists in famines, but does not

88
Food aid assists in famines, but assist the chronically hungry. Food aid will only make the chronically hungry people dependent. We need to empower chronicall hungry people to relieve their hunger problems.
The right to food is a

89
The right to food is basic human right.
To Maintain the Sustainability of an ecosystem,

90
To Maintain the Sustainability of an ecosystem, the integrity of wild species must be preserved. This means maintaining the resillence and biodiversity of the wild species.
Biological Wealth is the

91
Biological Wealth is the sum of all good that comes from living things.
The Species of Nature are Valuable due to providing

SFA-F-A-AH, SOM, R-A-SV, IV

92
The Species of Nature are Valuable due to (1) providing a source for Agriculture, Forestry, Aquaculture and Animal Husbandry. (2)Value as as source of medicine. (3)Recreational, Aesthetic, and Scientific Values. (4) Intrinsic Value--being alive has value.
The Endangered Species Act was designed to

93
The Endangered Species Act was designed to protect animals on the verge of extinction by preventing hunters from hunting them and by protecting their natural habitat. Weakness: Very open to political manipulation
The Red List is an

94
The Red List is an international list of species who are endangered. EX: Golden Cheek Warbler, Barton Springs Salamander, etc.
The Reasons for a decline in biodiversity include:

PAOH, HPI, P, ES, OU of RAL

95
The Reasons for a decline in biodiversity include a Physical Alteration of Habitat, Human population increase, Pollution, Exotic Species, and Overuse of resources and land by humans.
The PRIMARY cause of the loss of biodiversity is

96
The PRIMARY cause of the loss of biodiversity is habitat loss.