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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is globalization?
removing barriers so goods, people, services and ideas can freely move from place to place
what are some concerns of globalization?
undeveloped countries being stripped away of their culture, traditional ways, indigeneous control.

some worry that companies will take away resources, uncaring of the environmentwat
what do free marketers about globalization?
They believe it is a way for third world countries to lift themselves into a more developed nation due to the imports of technology, ect.
what is this topic called of free markets vs. anti-globalization?
"conflict of vision"
What did Krueger and Grossman find out about the relationship between pollution and income levels?
pollution increases with low incomes

pollution decreases with high income
According to the studies of Kruger and Grossman, can countries grow out of pollution problems with wealth?
what was this U curve called?
Environmental Kuznets curve
As industries change, their modes of making things will also ___________ and produce different environmental results.
What can help ease this rapid change in industrializaion in undeveloped countries?
the ideas from industrized nation
As income increases per capita at every house by _________, polludtion decreases by _______.

The more money an economy has, the more willing it is to _____________.
make investments for environmental
What are some bad aspects of globization in terms of pollution, and proponents of globalization using developed countries to their advantage?
placing polluting companies into countries that do not have laws supporting it

ruins of natural resources

internaional levels of pollution are needed, because "free trade" pollutes the environment
What are some holes in Kruger and Grossman?
The S curve

At 14,000 per capita, sulphur dioxide increases in all homes

not all air pollutants were pointed out
What did Bernstein do?
He set out to track the relasionship between environment and institutional structures
Which has a U-curve more: socialist or captialist countries
Why do socialist countries have the U-curve?
the managers of state enterprises operate under incentives that encourage them to have maximum output
Does increase in wealth demand for a cleaner environment laws?
What does the Antweier model think about free trade?
that it is good for the environment
Antwierer model discovered that for each _____ increase in per captial, there is a ____ fall.

Can the institutional factors of a country have an effect on the environment?
What did Noble Peace Prize winner North learn?
depending on the structure and enforcement, institutional arrangements can either foster or restrain economic growth
who enjoys longer increases of economical freedom?
countries that have the most economnic freedom
What did PERC discover in the 1980s?
incentives for environmental protection is more likely to generate investors in protecting environment
What are the key to incentives for environmental stuff?
free and open markets
property rights
rule of law
Does profit hurt the environment (i.e. get rid of resources)?
No, it actually benefits it
How do entrepenuers develop profits that are conserative?
it drives the economy to look for more less expensive items, which promotes efficency
why do property rights help the environment?
Because someone who owns their own property aren't going to want to destroy it
what is the rules of law?
makes sure that property is watched over by the government

people will not engage in transactions if they don't know whether or not their stuff will be protected
In what ways can this be seen affecting the world?
one guy sold off a lot of his country's resources to support his dictatorship
what happened in Peru
indigenous cultures didn't want to sell their properties

without the rule of law, developing countries can force thier will
Why are property rights not protected in Peru?
because in order for people to come in and take away tehir homes they need to give the people property rights or "royalties"
why is it good to have a free trade economy (india)?
in the beginning, without those rules, nothing was truly protected, everything was expensive to produce and sell in INdia
what is privitization?
Privatization/Privatisation (alternately "denationalization" or "disinvestment") is the transfer of ownership from the public sector (government) to the private sector (business). A transfer in the opposite direction could be referred to the nationalization or municipalization of some property or responsibility.
In Rwanda and Uganda what are they doing to help their economies?
become intense supporters of privatization
How does the author of this piece think about globalization?
thinks it is good