Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What is the Benthic Zone?
The bottom of a body of water; inhabited by decomposers, insect larvae, and clams
lower area of water source which collects nutients (i.e., dead animals/plant matter/decayed organisms
What is a Biome?
A region that have distinctive climates and organisms and that contain many separate but similar ecosystems.
Biome Types: Tropical Rainforest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Taiga, Grasslands, Chapparal, Deserts, Tundra, Lakes & Ponds, Wetlands & Ocean/Marine
What is a Canopy?
The top layer of a rainforest where the covering of intertwining branches absorbs most of the sunlight and shades the understory.
Rainforest layer where the most life exists; most safe layer for organisms.
What is a Chaparral?
Coastal Biome with a Mediterranean climate and low-lying vegetation. Animal species include quail, lizards, chipmunks, mule deer, which use camouflage for protection.
Ex. area surrounding the Hollywood sign in California which has many fire resistant plants which will burn off quickly then regrow themselves.
What is a Coral Reef?
p. 107
Limestone islands in the sea that are built by coral animals called polyps.
thousands of species of planta & animals live in its cracks & crevices making it the largest living organism Ex. Great Barrier Reef of Australia
What is a Desert?
Areas that receive less than 25cm (10") of precipitation a year. Two types include hot&dry or cold&dry
Ex. Sahara, Sonora,& Gobi are classic hot & dry; cold&dry deserts include Siberia & areas near arctic/antarctic latitudes
What is Drought Resistance?
p. 96.
Plants ability to live through long periods of drought (little water)
Adaptation of plants in desert by holding water, having waxy, fleshy leaves and stems, & spreading roots.
What is Estivating?
The act of burying in the ground and sleeping through the dry season.
A form of hibernation for desert animals.
What is an Estuary?
p. 105
Aquatic ecosystem in which fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean forming a nutrient trap.
Ex. Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, et. al.
What is the Littoral Zone?
p. 100
The shallow-water area near the shores of lakes and ponds where sunlight reaches the bottom.
Area near shores where phyto- & zoo- plankton grow rapidly
with sunlight
What is Permafrost?
Permanently frozen soil a few inches below the active
soil layer in Tundra Biomes.
a biome without tall trees north of arctic circle, dotted with bogs & swamps, thaws in summers creating swarms of insects (muskegs)
What is Taiga?
"Boreal Forest" , the northern coniferous forest that stretches in a broad band across the northern hemisphere just below the Artic Circle.
Climate has long winters, extreme cold (-4 deg. f.) Trees include pine, hemlock, fir, & spruce. Plants include blueberries, ferns, & mosses. Wildlife are moose, hares, wolves, caribou & reindeer.
What is a Temperate Deciduous Forest? p.86
Forest where trees drop their leaves ech fall, occur betw. 30 & 50 degree latitudes, extreme seasonal variation, winter below freezing, summers up to 95 degrees F.
tall trees include maple, oak & birch
What are Temperate Grasslands? p.92
Biomes occurring in semi-arid interiors of continents; examples are the prairies of North America, the steppes of Russia and Ukraine, and the pampas of South America.
Too little rain for trees to grow, rain shadow effects from mountains, cover 12% of earth' surface.
What are Tropical Rainforests? p. 80
Warm, wet biome that occurs in a belt around the Earth near the equator and that contains the greatest diversity of organisms on Earth.
Humid, warm, with >100in rainfall per year, holds many key plant and animal species important in medical research. Layers consist of understory, lower canopy, upper canopy, & emergent trees. Poor soil for agriculture.
What is a Savannah? p. 90
A tropical grassland biome with a short rainy season.
Ex. Tanzania, Kenya etc.
West African plains that contain the greatest collection of grazing animals on Earth and the predators that hunt them.
What is a Tundra? p. 97
A biome without trees, where grasses and tough shrubs grow in the frozen soil; extends from Arctic Circle to the north pole.
most fragile biome on Earth, food chains are simple and easily disrupted, mostly undisturbed by humans until recent oil searches
What are Wetlands? p102
Areas of land covered with water for part of the year.
Two types are freshwater wetlands (marshes) which contain nonwoody plants and swamps containing woody plants or shrubs.
Its vegetation traps carbon, they remove pollutants from water, grow out many game fish, help control flooding, and produce cranberries, blueberries, and peat moss.
What is an Aquifer? p. 126
An underground water source found in rock formations
Made of rocks, sand , gravel with many air spaces in which water can accumulate over millions of years.
What is Artificial Eutrophication? p. 137
Eutrophication that occurs because of the introduction of inorganic plant nutrients into a body of water through sewage and fertilizer runoff.
Phosphorus and nitrogen get into water from sewage amd fertilizer runoff causing excessive growth of algae creating Algal Blooms floating on water which deplete oxygen and kill fish
What is Biological Magnification? p. 136
Accumulation of increasingly large amounts of a toxin within the tissues of organisms at each successive trophic level.
Ex. build up of DDT pesticides in Bald Eagles caused thinning of their eggs and reduction of numbers to almost extinction.
What is Desalinization? p.128
A process in which salt is removed from salt water, as from the oceans rendering the water fit for drinking and cooking.
Extracting salt from marine water is too expensive for most communities. Alternative may be towing icebergs or floating bags of water from Alaska down the Pacific Coast to California.
What is Groundwater? p. 126
Water that seeps down through the ground and is stored underground on top of nonporous rock layers.
The water table.
What is Nonpoint Pollution?
p. 133
Pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single specific site; an example is pollution that reaches a body of water from streets and storm sewers.
Sources of N.P.P. include highway constru.& runoff, storm-water runoff from city and suburban streets, Pesticides, Fertilizer, & dry salt
What is Point Pollution?
p. 133
Pollution that is discharged from a single source, such as a factory, wastewater treatment plant, or oil tankers.
P.P. Sources: septic tank systems, storage lagoons, municiapal landfills, underground storage tanks (gasoline) , public & indus. wastewater treatment plants.
What is the Recharge Zone?
p. 127
Area of land on the Earth's skurface from which groundwater originates.
fed by several aquifers in the U.S.
What is Surface Water?
p. 123
Freshwater above ground in lakes, ponds, rivers, & streams.
77% is frozen in icecaps. 97% of all water is salt water & 3% freshwater.
What is Thermal Pollution?
p. 137
The addition of excessive amounts of heat to a body water such as runoff from industrial cooling systems.
Kills animals in a water ecosystem due to temperature changes.
What is Water Pollution?
p. 131
The introduction of foreign substances into water that degrade its quality, limit its use, and affect organisms in it or drinking it.
Congressional Legislations for water purification: 1972 Clean Water Act & Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, 1975 Safe Drinking Water Act, 1980 - Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation & Liability Act & 1987 Water Quality Act
What is a Watershed? p. 123
The entire area of land that is drained by a river.
Ex. The Mississippi River drains the entire center of the U.S.A. betw. Canada & Louisiana = 1000s of sq. km.