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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Environmental science is a
D. systematic approach learning about the environment.
Most environmental problems result from
B. complex, interrelated problems.
Ideally, science
D. is orderly and methodical.
The best definition of a hypothesis is a(n)
proposed explanation based on observation.
Of the following statements and questions, which is the best example of deductive reasoning?
A. If all insects have six legs, then butterflies have six legs.
The statement, “Since every insect I have examined so far has six legs, I conclude that all insects must have six legs.” is an example of
A. inductive reasoning.
Proof in science is always
E. open to question or new evidence.
At the end of the twentieth century, ____________________ has/have been added to environmental thinking.
A. global concerns
The point of critical thinking is to learn to
A. weigh evidence and draw your own conclusions.
In reading a claim by an atmospheric scientist that ozone depletion is not an actual environmental problem, a critical thinker would
D. look for evidence of the source’s reliability.
One of the first steps in critical thinking is to
C. identify premises and conclusions.
Proponents of sustainable development argue that
C. development can proceed with minimal costs to the environment.
Sustainable development differs from traditional economic development in that it emphasizes economic development in the short term.
False
Places in the world where indigenous people live tend to have high biodiversity.
True
The relationship among atoms, elements, and compounds is most like the relationship among
E. grains of sugar, sugar, and sweetened iced tea.
Energy is the ability to
E. Both move objects and transfer heat from one object to another are true.
Potential energy is _______ energy.
C. stored
The motion of a rock rolling downhill is known as __________ energy.
A. kinetic
The law of conservation of matter tells us that matter
E. is used repeatedly.
What implication(s) does the law of conservation of matter have for humans?
D. Disposable goods are not going “away” when we throw them out.
The first law of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter are similar in that
A. under normal circumstances neither energy nor matter is created nor destroyed.
What implication(s) does the second law of thermodynamics have for biological systems?
C. A constant supply of energy is necessary for maintenance of biological systems.
Photosynthesis is the process of converting __________ into __________ energy.
B. sunlight; chemical bond
Photosynthesis produces sugars from
A. water, carbon dioxide, and energy.
A biological community consists of all
A. populations living and interacting in an area.
All members of a species that live in the same area at the same time make up a(an)
D. population.
An ecosystem consists of
C. a biological community and its physical environment.
Primary consumers are also known as
D. herbivores.
Nitrogen is an essential component of amino acids and proteins.
True
Photosynthesis is a step in the global nitrogen cycle.
False
Evolution occurs as a result of
D. better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic.
Natural selection will ultimately makes a species
C. more adapted to its environment.
An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
A. that it can produce.
The most common reason that introduced species cause trouble is because they are larger than native species.
False
The introduction of a predator onto an island originally free from predators is likely to cause the extinction of a native species.
True
The world human population reached 1 billion in about
E. 1800
Historically, up until the Middle Ages, populations were mostly limited by
C. disease, famine, and war.
Malthus and Marx
C. disagreed about the root causes of overpopulation, poverty, and social upheaval.
Family planning means enabling people to
D. decide in advance how many children they should have.
So far, the most successful and popular solution(s) to global overpopulation has/have been mandatory sterilization.
False
Human population growth most closely resembles the S-shaped growth curve.
False
Historically, the greatest threat to grasslands has been
C. conversion to farmland.
One biome type that has not been as badly threatened as other biomes is
A. arctic tundra.
Ecological diversity is a measure of the number of
D. niches, trophic levels, and ecological processes of a biological community.
The total number of living species is probably
C. between 3 million and 50 million.
Species diversity is most concentrated in
B. South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia.
The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is
D. habitat destruction worldwide.
Tropical moist forests have high species diversity because they have highly developed, diverse niche opportunities and habitats.
True
Since tropical forests typically have only a few commercially valuable trees per acre, logging operations
B. do extensive damage because of road building and injury to surrounding trees.
Although most of the world’s forests are shrinking, biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss because
A. they contain such high biodiversity.
Old-growth forests are notable for containing species that
C. are highly adapted to their special environment.
Of all the old growth forests that stood in the United States before European settlement, how much remains today?
E. less than 10 percent
Most commercial loggers prefer “clear-cut” harvesting because it
C. is the most efficient, cheapest harvest method using large, fast machinery instead of costly labor.
World deserts are
C. increasing because of logging and grazing.
Many developing countries in Africa find their wildlife is worth the most money
C. as photographic subjects.
As officially defined by Congress in the 1964 Wilderness Act, “wilderness” is
B. undeveloped land where humans have little impact and temporary presence, and visitors can find solitude.
Undernourished parents often raise children who are undernourished because the parents
C. cannot afford to feed their children properly.
What are two common diseases that result from protein deficiencies?
E. marasmus and kwashiorkor
Anemia is a common disease resulting from a shortage of dietary
C. iron.
The three crops that humans rely on for the majority of nutrients and calories are
B. wheat, rice, and maize.