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75 Cards in this Set

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Radiation
Heat transfer without the aid of a material medium
Conduction
flow of heat through solid material
Convection
Heat transport by streams of molecules through a flowing medium
Factors that affect heat flow
Effective surface area
Temperature difference
Thermal conductivity of conductor
Tastebuds
Dorsal and lateral portion of tongue
Chemoreceptors
High turnover
Flavors sensed by tastebuds
sweet
sour
salty
bitter
umami
optic chiasm
where Optic Nerve meets the brain
Factors that affect Evaporation
Surface Area
Vapor Pressure Gradiant (humidity)
Factors that affect Convection
Effective Surface Area
Temperature Difference
Air Speed
Factors that affect Radiation
Effective Surface Area
Surface absorptivity/emmissivity (color)
Temperature of surfaces
Poikilotherm
changes temperature with ambient conditions
Kinetic energy
proportional to Absolute temp (K)
Thermal Energy
average molecular motion witin a material
Homoeotherm
maintains temperature despite ambient conditions
endothermy
relies on metabolism for heat
somatosensory systems
touch/pressure
joint sensation
temperature: cold, warm receptors
Visual system
photoreceptor
retina
rods/cones
optic nerves
Auditory system
pinna
tympanic
hair cells
external auditory meatus
otic/oto: ear
Vesticular System
Balance
hair cells
linear and rotational acceleration
Gustation
tastebuds:chemoreceptors
Olfaction
Main olfactory
Accessory olfactory: pheromones
transducer
transforms one type of energy into another form

codes intensity through the frequency of the Action Potential
brown fat
more mitochondria
thermogenic
found in neonates
never endings release norepinephrine
Non-shivering thermogenesis
thyroxine from the thyroid gland increases metabolism
gular flutter
evaporative thermoregulation used by some birds through pulsation of the esophagus
torpor
body temperature declines during a portion of the day (usually night) to conserve engergy
Radon
Carcinogenic
rocks, soil, basements
Alpha particle emmitter
heaver than air
20,000 death a year
Silo Gas
Nitrogen Dioxide NO2
Heavier than air
binds to water in lungs
NO2+H20=nitric acid
made by fermantation
bleach odor, yellowish brown tint
Surface area of lungs
100m
thin-1 cell thick
surface area of human skin
2 m
hyperbaric chambers
2-3atm
Carbon Monoxide
CO
binds to hemoglobin and replaces O2
Lee-Boot effect
suppression or prolongation of estrus cycles when females are housed together and isolated from males
Bruce Effect
unfamiliar males causes abortion pre or post implantation up to day 17.
Asphyxiation
deficient supply of O2 to the body by way of
-chemical
-physical obstruction
-compressive forces
-smothering
Whitten Effect
male affects a group of females and synchronizes estrus cycles
McClintock Effect
menstrual synchrony in humans
serendipity
discovery of something not saught after
pheremone
chemical that transmits a message to other members of the same species
Main olfactory location
dorsal, caudal, on Cranial Nerve 1
Accessory olfactory location
ventral, rostral
Cohorts
same age, species, location
confounded
confusing, unclear, mistake one thing for another
1/2 life of oxytocin
1 minute
1/2 life of melatonin
35-50 minutes
scotoperiod
period of darkness
circadian rhythm
cycle that repeats every 24 hours
circennial rhythm
repeats yearly
corpus collasum
band of neural tissue, hemisphere communication
long day breeders
horse, cats, wolves
short day breeders
sheep
Left Brain
logic, language
Right Brain
creative
pineal gland
inhibited by light
on median plane (midsagittal)
Collects Flouride
H2S
Hydrogen Sulfide (Sewer Gas)
Colorless, Heavier than air
Rotten Egg odor
Eye Irritant
Displaces O2
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
Colorless
Odorless
Heavier than Air
NH3
Ammonia
lighter than air
eye irritant
CH4
Methane
lighter than air
odorless
explosive
colorless
anastimosis
2 tubes put together
Hypoxia
low oxygen levels in the environment
occurs at high altitude
less than 21% oxyge
Hyperbaric Chamber
corrects pressure levels in the body
Used to treat injury such as CO poisoning
greater than 1 atm
opposite of high altitude
phytochemical
chemical synthesized by plants
anogenital distance
distance between the prepuce or vulva and anus
larger in male
hypoxemia
low O2 concentration in the blood
emphysemia
asphyxiation
low O2 levels in the blood caused by physical obstruction, compression, smothering, CO2 level, etc
Brisket disease
high altitude disease in cattle
right heart failure
arterial pressure builds until fluids leak from the bloodstream and collect in the brisket
cohorts
individuals of the same species, age, location
diurnal
active during the day
pheromone
chemical that transmits a message to the other members of the same species
analog
stucture similiar to parent compoud
antagonist
hormone with actions opposite of parent compound
agonist
hormone that imitates another hormone
compound with actions simiiar to the parent compound
High altitude
Decreased [O2]
Increases RBC, hematocrit, PCV
Increased EPO
Erythropoietin (EPO)
protein hormone from kidney (renal hormone)
VNO
Vomeronasal organs
Jacobson's organ
olfactoray sac in the roof of the mouth