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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
leading cause (really a risk factor) premature death and cancer in United States
most addictive substance; attaches to nicotinic cholinergic receptors
Tobacco induced cancers
lung, oropharynx, larynx, pancreas, kidney, bladder
CNS depressant (cortex, limbic system); legally drunk 80-100 mg/dL
Alcohol cellular effect
induces SER hyperplasia; increases alcohol metabolism
MCC of: folate/thiamine deficiency; sideroblastic anemia; liver fatty change; pancreatitis
Alcohol systemic effects
hypoglycemia; lactic/ketoacidosis; inc triglyceride; AST > ALT; increased GGT
Ketoacidosis in alcoholic
3-hydroxybutyric acid
poppy plant; non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
MPTP (methamphetamine)
meperidine derivative; produces parkinsonism;
accidentally made while trying to make demerol in a lab
blocks uptake of dopamine/norepinephrine; mydriasis; AMI, CNS infarction
tetrahydrocannabinol binds basal ganglia receptors; delayed reaction time; red conjunctiva
Intravenous drug abuse
HBV hepatitis MC systemic disease
Acetaminophen toxicity
damage by FR acetaminophen; liver cell necrosis; renal papillary necrosis
Rx acetaminophen toxicity
N-acetylcysteine (increases synthesis of glutathione)
Salicylate toxicity
metabolic acidosis + respiratory alkalosis; hyperthermia; tinnitus, vertigo
Estrogen risks
thromboembolism; cholestasis; endometrial/breast cancer
Oral contraceptives
cholestasis, thrombosis, folate deficiency, hypertension, hepatic adenoma
Hemolytic anemia
penicillin, methyldopa, quinidine
Aplastic anemia
benzene, chloramphenicol
Qualitative platelet dysfunction
heparin, quinidine
Macrocytic anemia
methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, phenytoin, OC, alcohol
Congestive cardiomyopathy
doxorubicin, daunorubicin
Interstitial fibrosis
bleomycin, methotrexate
Hemorrhagic gastritis
iron toxicity, nonsteroidals
Liver necrosis
acetaminophen, isoniazid, salicylates, halothane, isotretinoin acid
anabolic steroids, OC
Fatty change in liver
amiodarone, tetracycline, alcohol
Photosensitive rash
SLE-like symptoms
procainamide, hydralazine
Isopropyl alcohol
inc acetone; CNS dysfunction
microcytic anemia, nephrotoxic ATN (proximal tubule), gout, encephalopathy, neuropathy
fish (tuna, salmon); nephrotoxic ATN; constricted visual fields
blocks acetylcholine esterase; miosis; paralysis; Rx: atropine, pralidoxime
Polyvinyl chloride
plastic pipes; angiosarcoma of liver
Scorpion sting
paralysis, hypertension, pancreatitis
Crotaline bite
rattlesnakes, water moccasin, copperhead; DIC; serum sickness
Coral snake bite
neurotoxin; binds to presynaptic nerve terminals and acetylcholine receptors
Contact gunshot wound
soot + gunpowder (fouling)
Intermediate gunshot wound
powder tattooing
Distant gunshot wound
no powder tattooing; exit wound larger than entrance
Motor vehicle accidents
leading cause accidental death between 1-39 yrs of age
Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis MC COD
First degree burn
painful; complete healing
Second degree burn
painful; blister; complete healing
Third degree burn
painless; scarring
painless; ice crystallization in cells
Electrical injury
AC worse than DC; decreasing resistance (wet skin) increases current
House fires
carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning
Heat exhaustion
fever and sweating
Heat stroke
fever and anhidrosis
Near drowning
survival following asphyxia due to submersion
Wet drowning
initial laryngospasm then relaxation and water into lungs
Dry drowning
intense laryngospasm without aspiration
Cold water drowning
shunts blood from periphery to central core
hypoxemia key COD
Acute mountain sickness
headache MC; non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (immediate descent)
High altitude
normal %02; decreased barometric pressure; respiratory alkalosis; T 2,3 BPG
Ionizing radiation
DNA most susceptible protein
Ionizing radiation
lymphoid tissue most radiosensitive; bone least radiosensitive
Ionizing radiation cancers
leukemia (most common); thyroid cancer; osteogenic sarcoma
UVB-related cancers
basal cell carcinoma (most common); squamous cancer; melanoma