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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe the different types of demand on freshwater and how much water is used by each type of demand
Irrigation and other agricultural uses 700 galls per day per person

electrical power production 600 gallons per day per person

industrial use 370 gallons per day per person

residential use 100 gallons per day per person
What is the number one use of water world wide?
name the two consequences of overdrawing surface waters
results in shortages

ecological effects
14. What is the maximum percentage of the average flow of a river that can be taken without facing future shortages and other problems?
What are Estuaries?
o Bays in which fresh water from a river mixes with sea water
o Most productive ecosystem on earth
16. What are the 4 environmental effects of overdrawing ground water?
oFalling water tables & depletion
–Overuse for crop production
–About 50% of drinking water is pumped from aquifers
oDiminishing surface waters
oLand subsidence
oSalt water intrusion
17. Approximately what percent of water comes from groundwater sources?
18. Describe the 4 steps in water purification
•alum coagulation
•disinfection (usually with chlorine gas)
19. What is the primary consideration in determining the amount of water purification?
The amount of treatment is dependent on the quality of the water source
20. What are 3 problems in water treatment
oFailure to kill microbes
–fecal coliform test to monitor for contamination
oChemical overdoses
–high fluoride or high chlorine
oChemical residuals
–disinfection by-products
21. What test is used to determine if sewage contamination is present in drinking water
•Fecal coliform test
22. What are some of the concerns regarding drinking water in the 3rd World? -
access to safe drinking water supplies is limited
•Less than 50% have safe supplies
•This can lead to diseases such as cholera
23. Discuss the needs & prospects for obtaining more water
•Growing populations create an ever-increasing demand for additional water for irrigation & industrial/municipal use
•Prospects for increasing the supply are poor, so conservation is the only answer
24. List 3 ways of reducing water demands
oDrip irrigation systems
oThrough improvements in municipal systems
–Retrofitting plumbing devices
–Xeroscaping: landscape with desert plants & rocks
–Use gray water on plants
–Treat sewer water
o Desalting waterGetting industry to include the cost of water treatment in the price of consumer goods
25. What is water pollution, and what are 2 types of water pollution? (Be sure you understand the difference between the 2 types.)
• Any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitablePoint source vs non-point source

point sources - specific locations of highly concentrated pollution discharge, such as factories, power plants, sewage treatment plants, underground coal mines, and oil wells

nonpoint sources - scattered, widely spread sources of pollutants, such as runoff from farm fields, golf courses, and construction sites.
26. Describe the different zones when pollution is added to a river:
• The river changes from a clean zone to a decomposition zone, a septic zone, and a recovery zone.
• The amount of oxygen present in the water will drop due to the presence of pollution
• If no additional pollution sources are present, the river will revert to a clean zone.
27. Describe the effects of pollution on lakes
• Lakes cannot dilute pollutants as quickly as a flowing stream or river.
• As a result, lakes change from Oligotrophic (low in nutrients) to Eutrophic (high in nutrients
28. What is the “cell from hell?”
• Pfiesteria is a micro-organism capable of changing into 24 forms
o free living algae eater or
o as a dinoflaellate, it releases neurotoxins that can stun fish or make humans ill
• “Blooms” of Pfiesteria have been linked to run-off from hog & chicken feedlots.
29. What is the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972?
• Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 controlling the discharge of pollutants
31. What is the most important purpose of municipal sewage treatment?
o Needed to alleviate health & aesthetic problems related to sewage disposal
o Effective in dealing with problems created by dumping raw sewage into waterways
32. What are the 4 steps/ levels of sewage treatment?
o Preliminary treatment – removal of grit & debris
o Primary treatment – coagulate & settle
o Secondary treatment - Biological nutrient removal & disinfect ion (usually with chlorine)
o Tertiary treatment Cleansing of specific chemicals
33. What are the 4 categories of pollutants in raw sewage?
• Debris and grit, particulate organic materials, colloidal and dissolved organic chemicals, dissolved inorganic chemicals
34. What are the different levels of sewage treatment
 Preliminry, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary
35. What is the level that most municipal systems reach?
• Preliminary, primary, and secondary treatment but no more
36. What are 4 sludge treatment options?
o Anaerobic digestion
o Composting
o Pasteurization & drying
o Lime stabilization
37. What are examples of 5 alternative treatment systems?
o Using effluents for irrigation
o Reconstructed wetlands systems
o Artificial wetland systems
o Greenhouse wetland systems
o Overland flow systems
38. Describe a typical septic treatment system?
o Onsite wastewater treatment systems
o System set-up: Septic tank & Soil absorption field or sand filter (no-chlorine)
39. What kinds of toxic materials get into wastewater treatment system that can not be removed using secondary treatment?
o Synthetic organic compounds
o Toxic pollutants
o Household chemicals
40. What is storm water and why is it a problem?
• It is the water that washes off of roofs, streets and other hard surfaces
• It is a problem because it becomes contaminated with oil, fertilizer, or anything dumped on the street
41. When is industrial pretreatment required
• It is necessary to remove toxic chemicals that will not be removed by conventional (secondary treatment
42. What was the purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act?
• EPA sets maximum contaminant levels for specified pollutants found in drinking water
• Prescribed schedule for monitoring & testing treated water
• Report water quality results to appropriate state agencies
43. Describe the process of total product life cycle
o Raw materials are minded, transported, refined, transported, manufactured into a product, transported, used & disposed of
o The environment may be contaminated by a hazardous material or waste at many points in its life cycle
44. What are bioaccumulation and biomagnification?
• Bioaccumulation accumulation of higher & higher concentrations of potentially toxic chemicals in organisms (the selective absorption and storage of a great variety of molecules. this allows them to accumulate nutrients and essential minerals)
• Biomagnification through several levels of the food chain. increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals in succesively higher trophic leels of a food chain or web
45. What was the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974?
• Set standards for allowable pollutants in drinking water
46. What is groundwater remediation and what is the problem with it?
• – very expense way of cleaning contaminated groundwater
47. What was the Superfund and what is one of the problems with it?
o It set priorities for clean up of hazardous waste sites based on current & potential threat to groundwater supplies, threat to human health, immediate & severe threats-NPL sites
o Problem with costs applied to legal fees
48. What is the National Priority List (NPL)?
• It is those sites that require cleanup to prevent further environmental and health damage
49. What was the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976?
o Cornerstone legislation designed to prevent unsafe or illegal disposal of wastes on land
50. What was the Underground Storage Tank (UST) standard
o Requires strict monitoring of fuel supplies, tanks, & piping so that leaks may be detected early
51. What are the Worker Right to Know and the Community Right to Know standards?
o Law & especially one rule the Hazard Communication Standard requires business & industries to make information regarding hazardous materials & suitable protective equipment available to all employees
o SARA Title III the Community Right to Know law – similar to the OSHA standard for workers
52. What are 3 approaches to hazardous waste prevention?
• Pollution avoidance – accomplished by:
o Responsible care
o Green products
53. What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)?
o Total of all materials thrown away from homes & commercial establishments
54. How do we dispose of MSW
o Landfills
o Incineration, including Waste to Energy (WTE)
o Only about 25-30% is recycled in the US
55. The amount of waste has grown steadily due to what?
• population growth, use of disposables, lifestyle & packaging
56. What are the most common types of MSW?
mostly paper & yard waste – things that should be recycled
57. What are 4 problems with landfills?
 Leachate generation & groundwater contamination
 Methane production
 Incomplete decomposition
 Settling
58. What are the advantages & disadvantages of incineration
 Reducing the volume of waste, easier handling, make electricity
 But the materials should go into recycling & reuse
59. What is the best method of dealing with refuse?
 Reduce the generation of it in the 1st place
60. What percentage of waste could be recycled?
– 75%
61. What are the two kinds of recycling?
 Pre-consumer waste and post consumer waste
62. How do we encourage recycling?
 Simplified system of collection
 Pay as you throw
63. What is composting
 Natural biological decomposition of organic matter in the presence of air
 Economic & environmental benefits
64. What is "Integrated Waste Management"
 Waste reduction
 Recycling
 Some disposal
65. Explain the difference between a hazard & a risk
 Hazard is the potential of something to do harm it may be: chemical, biological, physical, or cultural
 Risk is the probability of some harmful event occurring
66. Hazards fall into which 4 categories? (Be able to distinguish between them)
 Cultural
 Physical
 Chemical
 Biological
67. Can all hazards be avoided?
 No, e.g., certain natural hazards like earthquakes can not be avoided
68. What is the difference between a toxic and a hazardous substance
 A substance is rated for toxicity based on the amount of material necessary to kill 50% of test animals
 Toxins are just one type of hazardous chemical. Hazardous chemicals may cause harm by being flammable, damaging to tissues, interfering with oxygen uptake, cause allergic reactions, or many other problems
69. What is an LD 50?
lethal dose The amount of a substance that will kill half of the population.