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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Regulations
Completely binding. Rules of procedures or standards that must be met.
Directives
Binding in terms of goals and objectives. Interpreted by members of state.
Decisions
Binding in terms of specified outcomes (usually setting up particular programmes (e.g. energy efficiency programmes)
Neo-liberasim
Liberal politics that aim to maximise economic growth
Market Based Instruments (MBI)
Economic incentives to eliminate negative environmental consequences of businesses/ industry. E.g. Taxes
Weak Sustainable Development
The kind of development put forward by the Reo Earth Summit. Different forms of capital can substitute for one another (natural, man-made etc). It is the overall “portfolio” that we pass on that is important. This leads to all natural capital being transformed in to human capital
Strong Sustainable Development
Non-exchangeable capital. Development is unsustainable if environmental limits are exceeded. There is a de-coupling of economic development and destruction of the environment. Is this ever truly the case?
The Porter Hypothesis
Strict environmental regulation triggers innovation that lead to cost reduction that overcompensates for compliance costs
The Environmental Kuznets Cuve
As a society initially increases its capita it will pollute the environment but will reach a turning point when basic needs are met where upon advances in technology and environmental policy allow pollution levels to decrease? How true is this? Is it tru for all forms of pollution?
Precautionary Principle
The scientific jury is still out but there is some evidence that it may be bad to the general public, so a decision is made not to use it.
Regulatory capture
A regulatory groups designed to create public interest becomes captures by the interest groups e.g DEFRA and the farmers union.
Command and Control
Direct regulation os an industry though legislation that states what is legal and illegal
Tradable permits
A licence that is bought from the government for pollution or fishing and can be sold on.
What are the "5 Steps" for governing sustainability? Give some detail
1)Establishing a science base.
2)Achieving public support
3)Getting the institutions right
4)Effective and efficient policy making
5)Ensuring implementation and complience
-Provides the pursuation but the jury can often be out (pre-1) -Provides the pursuation but the jury can often be out (pre-cautionary principle. It is important that fast action is taken instead of arguing (ozone compared to climate change)

2)Public consultation sessions, make the public shareholders, the internet. Issues are complex so must either educate individuals or sum it down

3)Getting an institution with experience and with the correct interests to carry out the aims effectively (sometimes can have conflicting interests e.g energy security and climate change). Do you aim at the regional level (more driven and easier to mobilise) or at a larger scale (issues may cross boundaries and require co-operation)

4)MBIs (taxes and tradable permits creating a market) or very strict policy? Who benefits? But make sure the local pop gains (ecotoursism)

5)Governments need to be flexible in the implementation of laws (and must be aware of the difficulties a com pay may face to meet standards).
Name the three types of ecosystem services.
1) Provision services (Things we can trade)
2)Regulating services (they regulate our world e.g floods, climate, rainfall)
3)Cultural services (aesthetic, spiritual, educational)

All of these are underlaid by supporting ecosystem services-evolution, nutrient cycles)