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24 Cards in this Set

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SPECIES EQUILIBRIUM MODEL / THEORY OF ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY
the number of species found on an island is determined by a balance between two factors: the immigration rate (of species new to the island) from other inhabited areas and the extinction rate (of species established on the island). The model predicts that at some point the rats of immigration and extinction will reach an equilibrium point that determines the islands average number of different species (species diversity)
NATIVE SPECIES
those that normally live and thrive in a particular community
NONNATIVE SPECIES / INVASIVE SPECIES / ALIEN SPECIES
those that evolved somewhere else and then migrate into or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into a community
INDICATOR SPECIES
species that serve as early warnings of damage or danger to a community
KEYSTONE SPECIES
species that play roles affecting many other organsims in an ecosystem
INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION
the most common interaction between speices- competition for shared or scarce resources such as space and food
RESOURCE PARTITIONING
process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem so that species with similar needs (overlapping ecological niches) use the same scarce resources at different times, in different ways, or in different places
PREDATION
members of one speices feed directly on all of part of a living organims of another specis (the prey)- the predator benefits and the prey is harmed
PARASITISM
occurs when one species (the parasite) feeds on part of another organism (the host), usually by living on or in the host- the parasite benefits and the host is harmed
MUTUALISM
two spcies interact in a way that benefits both - ex. pollination mutualism, nutritional mutualism and gut inhabitant mutualism
COMMENSALISM
a species interaction that benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other speices
ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
process in which communities of plant and animal species in a particular area are replaced over time by a series of different and often more complex communities
PRIMARY SUCCESSION
ecological succession in a bare area that has never been occupied by a community of organisms
SECONDARY SUCCESSION
ecological succession in an area in which natural vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed
PIONEER SPECIES
first hardy species, often microbes, mosses, and lichens, that begin colonizing a site as the first stage of ecological succession
EARLY SUCCESSIONAL PLANT SPECIES
plant species found in the early stages of succession that grow close to the ground, can establish large populations quickly under harsh conditions ,and have short lives
MIDSUCCESSIONAL PLANT SPECIES
grasses and low shrubs that are less hardy than early successional plant species
LATE SUCCESSIONAL PLANT SPECIES
mostly trees that can tolerate shade and form a fairly stable complex forest community
DISTURBANCE
a change in environmental conditions that disrupts a community or ecosystem
INERTIA / PERSISTENCE
the ability of a living system to resist being disturbed or altered
CONSTANCY
the ability of a living system such as a population to keep its numbers within the limits imposed by available resources
RESILIENCE
the ability of a living system to repair damage after an external disturbance that is not too drastic
COMPLEXITY
the number of species in a community (species richness) at each trophic level and the number of trophic levels in a community
PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE
when there is evidence that a human activity can harm our health or bring about changes in environmental conditions that can affect our economies or quality of life, we should take measures to prevent harm even if some of the cause-and-effect relationships have not been fully established scientifically