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64 Cards in this Set

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gram positive bacteria
bacteria that have a peptidoglycan bilayer encasing it. Penicillin works.
gram negative bacteria
bacteria that have a plasmic membrane that doesn't allow penicillin through. other antidotes attack the bacteria by destroying the DNA inside
prokaryotic cell
very simple and small. no compartmentalization, only protein goo.
eukaryotic cell
compartmentalized. nucleus tells the other organelles what to do
Origin of the nucleus
folds occur in the plasmic membrane and eventually encase a strand of DNA in a bubble.
Theory of endosymbiosis
a piece of gunk is encased within a cell and becomes a compartment of its own, serving a function to the cell. i.e. chloroplast
animal cell vs. plant cell
animals have lysosomes-digestive tracks-
plants have chloroplasts, vacuoles, and cell walls
manufacturing of DNA in cell
ribosomes take sugars
mitochondria distinguishing populations
mRNA transform very slowly and get passed from mother to child, making little room for alteration by entering individuals
sympatric speciation
divergent selection--extremes thrive and don't mate amongst one another because of behavioral traits
allopatric speciation
physical seperation like river not allowing individuals to intermate
Plasmids
a double strand of DNA formed into a ring. makes it easier to read and able to add a strand to alter the individual
Transformation
uptake a naked DNA
Transduction
virus serves as a DNA taxi
Conjugation
direct transfer by pili-grippers on bacteria-between two individuals
Eubacteria
true bacteria, heterotrophic, aerobic, responsible for evolution of Krebs cycle
Archaea
anaerobic, no peptidoglycan,live in extreme habitats
Eukarya
animals and any other form of life
Bacteria in the nitrogen cycle
legume-rhizobilum symbiosis: root secretes flavenoids, root becomes infected, tells root to fix nitrogen
Viruses
contains proteins in lipid bilayer, and markers that attach to host. needs to use host to reproduce. tells body to kill itself
Lytic vs. Lysogenic life cycle of virus
Lytic: virus plants DNA where it becomes reproduced to the point where the cell explodes with lots more viruses
Lysogenic:cell reproduces multiple times spreading with virus DNA
polyphyletic vs. monophyletic
can't trace back to single common ancestor
problems caused by protists
blight, maleria and giardia passed, red tides
Protists
single celled eukaryotes that move via cilia, flagella, or pseudopods
Hyphae vs. mycelium
many hyphae make up mycellial networks
Arbuscular mycorrhizae
grow into the plant's roots helping them absorb nutrients and water
Ecto-mycorrhizae
grow up and around the plant's roots to help them absorb nutrients and water
Auxin
hormones telling plant to grow in apical meristem
Cytokinins
hormones telling plant to grow across lateral meristem
ethylene
hormones telling plant to ripen and produce seeds, leaves, flowers and fruit
absicic acid
hormones telling plant to be dormant
gametophytes
haploid stage where male and female are seperate. dominant in moss
sporophytes
diploid stage where male and female are combined. dominant in ferns and seed plants
Why are ferns and mosses found in low lying, moist habitats?
They have no root system or supportive tissue to let them stand up and require moist habitats to obtain nutrients
WHy are embryos found in seeds?
seeds provide protection, trap moisture and nutrients
phytoremediation
process where plants remove toxins from the soil
phytovolatilization
plants release broken down toxins
phytodegeneration
plant breaks down toxins into smaller elements
phytoaccumulation
plant holds in toxins where they can be harvested
Defining characteristics of animals
mobile-can move independently, heterotrophic, multicellular
choanoflagellates
take food from water column, have no structural plan so they can grow back easily-every part acts the same, eats by taking from water that passes by it
Porifera-sponges
multicellular, made from many cells of choanoflagellates
Cnidaria-jellyfish, sea anemones
tissues, radial symmetry, medusa-free floating- and polyp-sessile-stage
Ctenophora-comb jellies
swallow things that bump into it, radial symmetry
Platyhelminthes-flatworms
head and foot. cestodes-weakens host by removing nutrients-i.e. melnin in fish. terballeria-hand comes out of belly to eat, one opening for ingestion and excretion
Nematodes
pseudocoelom, nutrients diffuse in, parasites in humans, live in soil or host.
Rotifers
feeding coordination rotation of cilia on corona, pseudocoelom- body cavity forms between endo and mesoderm
Mollusca-snails, clams, squid
bilateral symmetry, muscular foot, one way digestive track, coelom-body cavity w/in mesoderm,rasping tongue is feeding organ
Echinoderms-sea stars, sand dollars
deuterostomes-anus first,endo skeleton, tube foot, water vascular system for gripping and movement(coelom), reproduce sexually
Annelida-segmented worms
segmentation-localized compartments that each perform functions, water vascular system, hold on to soil with little hairs as it moves along
Arthropoda-insects, spiders, crestaceans, myriapoda
crestacea-10 legs, spiders-8 legs, insects-6 legs, myriapods-hundreds of legs
Insecta
Coleoptera-beetles
Hymenoptera-wasps, bees, ants(parasitoids:kill one)
lepidoptera-butterflies and moths
Moths
saturniids-die quickly, only alive for reproduction. sphingids-eat from deep corolla flowers, live longer
Chordata-vertebrates
dorsal hollow nerve cord, gill slits, notochord, muscular tail extending past anus
Chordata-subphylum verbrata
cartilidge forms around nerve cord, cranium protects brain, brain coordinates movement and senses, kidney, liver, heart, jaws and teeth
Oxygen Revolution
Respiration possible-aerobic more efficient, dominance of aerobes-bigger, ozone layer forms-protects against harmful rays
endoplasmic reticulum-rough and smooth
produces proteins and enzymes
rough:with ribosomes-proteins
smooth:no ribosomes-enzymes
ribosomes
composed of rRNA and mRNA who translate material into protein
golgi apparatus
mRNA receives instructions to produce protein and expell from cell
plasma membrane
proteins embedded w/in phospholipid bilayer. communicates with inside and outside of cell-direct, paracrine, endocrine
mitochondria
place of respiration
gene
basic unit of heredity. sequence of nucleotides
genotype
genetic constitution underlying a trait
phenotype
realized expression of a genotype-genes acting together to build an outcome