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176 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How much CO2 is released antropogenically eery year?
70 trillion lbs/year
what is scientific method?
it is a way to look at the earth around you and make observations
what is the first step of the scientific method?
posing a problem
what is the second step of the scientifc method?
getting observations
what is the third step of the scientifc method?
hypothesis
what is the fourth step of the scientifc method?
acception/rejection
For a long time people believed that maggots turned into _________
flies
earth science differs because it deals with a parameter to manipulate.

what is that parameter
time
How old is the planet earth?
4.5 billion years old
what kinds of situations can be systems?
anything
what is an open system?
has energy transfer
matter
what is a closed system?
energy transfer but no change in matter
what is an isolated system?
example: wine bottle in a dark basement
the earth is a _________ system.
closed
Where do all our oceans come from?
all of our water could be extraterrestriial
is amber a closed system?
no. scientific research has found that gases go in and out of it
Elephant Butte is an example of an _________ system.
open
what kind of factors input into the lake?
rain, stream/river
what kind of factors output into the lake?
river/strem
evaporation
groundwater
what is albedo?
reflectivity of a substanct?
what kind of alebdo is 0?
absorbing
what kind of albedo is 1?
reflecting
what is snow's albedo?
0.8-.85
What kind of albedo does the forest have?
low
what is the albedo of a forest?
0.05-.1
what is an exmaple of negative feedback?
pole and fingers that balance a pole

system that has to stablize self

therefore always stays balanced
what is an exapmle of positive feedbck?
forest fire
what are the four spheres?
geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
when did our universe begin?
12-16 billion years ago
There is an ___________ in the mesaurement of our universe's age.
uncertainty
what did the universe start with?
nothing
How did Einstein want the universe to be?
static
what did Einstein think of as one of his biggest mistakes?
cosmological principles
after one second, how big was the universe after the big bang?
10e-35 of a second, size of a pea
what two theories support the big bang theory?
(1) redshift
(2) radioactive background
repeated behavior of the wavelengths is called _________.
frequency
what is the highest level anyone can hear?
30,000 HZ
higher frequency light waves become....
shorter
Who discovered redshift?
Edwin Hubbel
The galaxy away from us emites light that has ...?
lower frequency and longer wavelengths
Red shift is to light

::
doppler radar is to sound
what is the doppler effect?
that sound changes as it passes, goes to a lower frequency
what is an animation of a doppler efffect:
waves move at constant speed away from object that makes noise
what is the speed of sound?
700 mph
As the speed of sound gets smaller, the frequency gets more _________.
bunched up
How does redshift explain big bang?
there are no galaxy moving toward us
who found the radioactive background?
ATT technicians
the earth is slowly cooling as _________ heat leaks away
internal
The _________ volcano was heard around the world.
Kraktan
What is the most abundent component in magma?
SiO2
what are the three most common types of magma?
basaltic, andestiic
what are the two most common igneous rocks devrived from basaltic magma?
basalt and gabbro
what is andesitic magma?
60% SiO2 and dissolved gases
what is andesite and diorite?
the most common igneous rocks devrived from andeistic magma
what are the most common igneous rocks devrived from rhyolithic magma?
rhyolite and granite
80% of magma is...
basaltic
10% of magma is
andesitic and rhylotic
what is visosity?
the property that causes a substance to resit flowing
the higher SiO2 the magma is, the more ....
visous it is
what is a pyroclast?
a fragment of hot, shattered magma or any other fragment of rock ejected during an explosive volcanic explotion
what is tephra?
unconsolidated pyroclasts
what is a pyroclastic rock
when tephra and protocast become cemented together
what are volcanic gases made of?
water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur
what is pyroclastic flow?
whena hot mobile flow of tephra rushes down the flank of the volcano
what are the different types of volcanoes?
shield volcanoes
tephra cone volcano
stratovalcano
what is a shield volcano?
broad, roughly domed shaped mound with an average slops of 5 degrees near the summit and 10 degrees on the flanks

characstically formed by basaltic lava
what is a tephra cone?
steep sided volcano, composed entirely of tephra
what are stratovolcanoes?
steep conical mounds consists of layers of lava and ephra

slope of 30 degrees
what is a caldera?
roughly circular, steep walled basin, several kilometers
what are the hazards of stratovolcanos?
flow
poisonous gas
mud flow
tsunami
famine
Since 1800, ______ volcanoes have killed more than 1000 people
18
Lava and volcanic ash produce _________ soil.
fertile
what are plutons?
intrusive igneous rock
List the seven different types of plutons.
dikes
sills
laccoliths
volcanic pipe
volcanic neck
stocks
batholiths
what is a dike?
cut across the the layering of intruded rock
what are sills?
paralell to layering
what are laccoliths?
sills that cause the intruded rocks to bend upward
what are volcanic pipes?
cylinderical conduit of igenous rock before volcanic vent
what is a volcanic neck?
pipe laid pare of erosion
what are stocks?
small (less than 10km)
what are batholiths?
huge (up to 1000km)
What is Bowen's reaction series?
reactions of cooling magma
what are intrusive ingeous rocks?
formed by soldification of magma
what is porphyry?
intrusive igneous rock consisting of course mineral grains scattered through a mixture of fine grains
what is an agglomerate?
when tephra is bomb sized
what are tuffs?
when pieces are eitehr lappilllis of ash
what is welded tuff?
when ash is hot and plastic
what are galaxies?
clusters of starts that form
why do galaxies form?
because gases of clouds are lightyears long
what is the speed of light?
186,000 miles a second
_________ and __________ exists in a galaxy in which tends to create a disc
condensation compression
what is the nearest galaxy?
andromeda
Who is Magellian?
the first to travel the eastern hempishere, so gaaxy was called the magellanic clouds
how old is the sun?
4.6 billion years old
How did the sun form?
large cloud of gas had graviational form which collapses and condenses into gas
what is the composition of the sun?
hydrogen
helium
when hydrogen gets compressed, it turned into helium which...
lets our energy
hyrdogen energy could create _________.
clean energy
how many terrestial planets are there?
four
how many jovians?
four
the asteroid belt has never been aable to coalese into a ________
planet
What is the star cloest to ours?
Alpha Centari
what are characteristics of terrestial planets?
small, dense, and rocky
the sun is 99.9% ....what?
helium
what are jovian planet?
they are bigger, cold, and gaseous
what planets have little or no atomsphere?
mecury and mars
who had a strange orbit?
pluto
several spacecraft have reached....
venus
how hot is it on venus?
900 degrees
earth is the only planet that has
liquid water
mars has
ice caps
there are also .... and ..... on the surface of mars
stream channels and arroyos
what is stratification?
results from arrangement of sedinmentary particles inlays
what is stratum?
district layer of sediment that accumulated on earth's surface
what is bedding?
layered arrangement of strata
what is stratigraphy?
study of strada
what is the law of original horizontaility?
states that sediemtns are horizontal or nearly so and parallel to earth's surface
what is the second law of horizn...
the principle of stratigraphic superpositon

the order in which strata is deposited from top to bottom
what is unconformity?
substainsial bleaks or gaps in sedimentary recod
what is angular unconformity?
implies that the older stra were deformed and then tuncaed by erosio
what is a geologic column?
a composite columnar section containing in chrono order the sucession of strata
what is classic sediment?
simply bits of broken rock and minerals that are moved as solid particles
what is chemical sediment?
tranported in solution and deposited when the dissolved minerals are precipitated
hwat are the four clastic sedimentary rocks?
conglomerate
sandstone
siltstone
shale
what is a varve?
pair of sedimentary layers depos. over the cycle of a year
what is cross bedding?
sedimentary beds that are inclined with respect to a thickness stratum within which they occur
what is limestone and dolostone
the most important of biogenic rocks
what is peat?
plane remaints with carbon content of about 60%
what is coal?
peat forms into this evventually
newspapers say new mexico will be a dust bowl by ________
2050
in the last two years, there has been lots of __________
wet weather
during the fomration of the earth, we get mass moves to center .....creating the..... and we get an org of ...
sun

dust partices
why is neptune blue?
due to methane
what is planetary differentiation?
an early event that caused seperation from earth's core
what is earth's core made out of?
iron
what is earth's mantle made from?
silicate
irion and silicate seperate howw....
like oil and water
oil coales and gets heavier, while, iron usually...
sinks to the core of earth
as rion sinks to earth, it gives off large amount of...
water
there are no more rocks on earth that 4.5 billion years old duue to....
the constant redistribution of matter
there are lifeforms that live in caves underground with...
no oxygen
the mantle consists mostly of what?
magnesium and silicate
the mantle is....
dense and dark colored (green)
what are the characteristics of the crust?
it is pale and less dense
35% of the earth is...
iron
30# of the earth is...
oxygen
15% of the earth is
silicion
13% of the earth is
magnesium
what is an atom?
the smallest inseperable material
what are molecules?
combination of atoms
what are compounds?
mixed molecules
what three parts do atoms consist of?
protons-1
electrons-1
neutrons-0

can't have more protons than electrons
# of protons has to equal...
the number of electrons
tritum has two ....... and is ....
nuuetrons

radioactive
what is protium?
1 electron
1 proton
what is deuterium
1 electron
1 nuetron
1 proton
what is tritium
1 electron
1 proton
2 nuetrons
how may protons and nuetrons are in uragnium?
235
sodium has the consistency of...
butter
chlorine is a ________
gas


similar to mustard gas
Put these togeher creates compound molecule of...
sodium chloride
sodium and chloride creates a....
cube like molecular structure
what does a cube like molecular compound create
a cubelike rock
what are the five things that make a mineral?
(1) naturally occuring
(2) solid
(3) orderly crystalline structure
(4) unique chemcial composition
(5) inorganic
what is the softest on the hardness scale?
talc 1
what is 2 on the hardness scale?
gypsum
what is 3 on the hardness scale?
calcite
what is 4 on the hardness scale?
flourite
what is 5 on the hardness scale?
apatite
what is 6 on the hardness scale?
orthoclas
what is 7 on the hardness scale?
quartz
what is 8 on the hardness scale?
topaz
what is 9 on the hardness scale?
corundum
what is 10 on the hardness scale?
diamond
is ice a mineral?
yes
is dry ice a mineral?
no, doesn't occur naturally