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### 40 Cards in this Set

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 Phytoplankton tend to grow and concentrate near the surface of a lake or marine environment because: this is the best place for them to capture solar energy Typically an individual marine alga (or phytoplankton) lives: one or two days In ocean environments, deep nutrient rich cold waters "upwell" to the surface when surface waters are: cold The "upwelling" of nutrient rich cold waters from the bottom of marine systems is blocked during: El Nino events Marine phytoplankton are often called "grass of the sea" because d. zooplankton and some other higher aquatic organisms graze on phytoplankton just as cattle graze on grass The term "megafauna" refers to large animals Giant Panda Bears feed on bamboo shoots Biotic potential, in the absence of countervailing forces, can lead to exponential population growth In natural systems, biotic potential is balanced by environmental resistance Consider the species of Orca Whales; its intrinsic rate of growth "r" is 0.05 per year. Given an undisturbed marine environment and ignoring whale disease or predation (which is what "r" assumes) what is the percent rate of population increase among Orca Whales? 5% per year Using the equation, N = Noert, asume that we are studying an Orca Whale population of 7 whales. Assume also an undisturbed whale population with no predation or disease. How many whales would this pod contain in 5 years. Give you answer to the nearest whole number. 9 whales In population studies, an "S" curve approximates: exponential population increase followed by a decline in the rate of population increase What fraction of all plant and animal species is found in the world's tropical forests? 4/5 Why is plant and animal biodiversity so prevalant in the world's tropical forests? because tropical forests were never impacted by glaciers Canaries that were sometimes carried in cages into coal mines by miners were visibly affected if what toxic gas was present? carbon monoxide Many dry tropical forests in Costa Rica and Central Americal have been burned down to create cattle ranches. Technically, this is called: land conversion The "bush meat" industry exists in parts of Africa because: foreign investors profit by selling exotic wild meats The World Bank is an example of an NGO True Population doubling time is given by, t=0.70/r, where "r" is the intrinsic rate of increase for a particular species. Given an undisturbed marine environment with no whale disease or predation, what is the doubling time for a population of Orca Whales? 14 years Consider a population of soil bacteria. These bacteria are _____ strategists. "K" Consider this Arctic food chain; 100,000 Calories are available in marine phytoplankton. marine phytoplankton > marine zooplankton > minnows > Arctic char > polar bears How much of the marine phytoplankton food energy can be incorporated into polar bears? 10 calories The 1998 - 1999 study of Great Blue Heron in the Georga Basin revealed the presence of ____ breeding pair(s) of more than 200 heron. 2 Elevated levels of DDT in food webs that affected raptors such as the American Bald Eagle proved to be toxic to these birds because: DDT caused thinning of egg shells causing eggs to crush under the weight of parent birds ____________ is often called today's antibiotic of last resort. Vancomycin In class we discussed the fact that the annual rate of world population increase is decreasing and that by 2050 that rate will have declined from today's 1.14% to 0.5%. Let's assume that world population in 2050 will be about 6 billion people. How many people will be added to world population that year? 30 million According to the image we looked at in class (in Population.2) the Bubonic Plague claimed approximately ______________ lives. 200 million As we discussed in class, ecosystem biodiversity correlates positively with ecosystem stability. True The pace of worldwide urbanization is such that now (2006) ________% of the people in developed societies live in urban areas (cities). 80% Before modern times, few if any cities of the world were larger than __________ people. 2,000,000 Easter Island case studies suggest that the sharp population decline that occurred there was due to failed agriculture. What do researchers think caused agriculture to fail there? Deforestation and soil erosion As we saw in class, developments in Rondonia, Brazil are an example of urbanization. In Rondonia, diminished rainfall now prevails because: Trees are "pumps." They pump water from soils and from shallow aquifers through their roots, up into and through trees, releasing water from their leaves (evapotranspiration). Deforestation removes these pumps from the forest making it impossible to recharge the atmosphere above Rondonia with water. A coutry, state or region's total fertility rate (TFR) is the best indication we have of future population trends there. A TFR of _______ is regarded as replacement-level fertility. 2.1 What fraction of current (2006) population growth in the United States is due to immigration (legal)? 1/3 Calculate the doubling time of the U.S. population given the latest demographic statistics. 70 years One of the following kinds of development is NOT regarded as land conversion. Slash and burn agriculture The goal that Mao TseDong had in mind when he launched China's ill-fated Great Leap Forward in 1959 was: to make China equal in Industrial power to Great Britain In Year 2000 census data, the crude birth rate in Ethiopia is reported as 44.0 per 1000. This means that the annual percentage birth rate was: 4.4% What percent of the world's tropical forests are in Brazil? 30% Herbert Girardet believes that one of the best answers to run-away urbanization is: to re-vitalize rurual and village life styles and practices Jane Goodall's work in Africa's Gombi National Park and her forest/social communities redevelopment program called TACARE focuses on trees, local agriculture, forest animals, and communities of people. One of the initiatives she considers to be important is to assist women in developing their own small businesses. She suggests the use of _________ in accomplishing this. micro-credit banking programs