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97 Cards in this Set

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The 6 ways species interact are
mutualism, commensalism, predation, parasitism, herbivory, neutralism, amensalism, competition.
Multiple organisms seek the same limited resource
Competition
the full niche of a species.
Fundamental niche
only plays a part of its role because of competition or other species interaction.
Realized niche
Coexisting competitors may adjust their resource use, habitat use, or way of life to minimize conflict.
Niche
the process by which individuals of one species, a predator, hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of another species, its prey
Predation
a relationship in which one organism depends on another for nourishment or some other benefit while simultaneously doing the host harm.
Parasitism
animals feed on the tissues of plants.
Herbivory
a relationship in which two or more species benefit from interaction with one another.
Mutualism
a relationship on which one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected.
Amensalism
one species benefits; the other is unaffected
Commensalism
By eating different foods, organisms are at different
, and play different roles in the community.
Trophic levels
Plants and other photosynthetic organisms
Producers
animals that primarily eat plants
Herbivores
animals that eat herbivores
Secondary consumers
eat nonliving organic matter; they recycle nutrients
Detrivores and decomposers
simplified linear diagram of who eats whom.
Food chain
complex network of who eats whom.
Food web
between two or more species.
Interspecific competition
within a species. Does not usually involve fighting, but may include contests.
Intraspecific competition
one species excludes the other from a resource.
Competitive exclusion
both species coexist at a ratio of population sizes
Species coexistence
specialize in different ways of exploiting a resource.
Resource partitioning
physical characters evolve to become different to better differentiate resources use.
Character displacement
population dynamics of predator-prey systems sometimes show paired cycles; ups and downs in one, drive ups and downs in the other.
Predator-prey cycles
species that have especially great impacts on other community members and on the community’s identity
Keyustone species
a community that remains stable despite disturbance is showing _____.
Resistance
when it changes in response to disturbance but later returns to its original state.
Resilience
a series of regular, predictable, quantifiable changes through which communities go.
Succession
pioneer species colonize a newly exposed area
Primary succession
the community changes following a disturbance.
Secondary succession
transitions between stages of succession eventually lead to a ____ ____
Climax community
believed that communities are cohesive entities whose members remain associated over time and space.
Fredrick Clements
maintained that communities are not cohesive units, but temporary associations of individual species that can reassemble into different combinations.
Henry Gleason
a biome consisting of mid latitude forests characterized by broad-leafed trees that lose their leaves each fall and remain dormant during winter.
Temperate deciduous forest
a biome whose vegetation is dominated by grasses and features more extreme temperature differences between winter and summer and less precipitation than temperate deciduous forests.
Temperate grassland
a biome consisting of tall coniferous trees, cooler and less species-rich than tropical rainforest and milder and wetter than temperature deciduous forests
Temperate rainforest
a biome that characterized by year-round rain and uniformly warm temperatures.
Tropical rainforest
a biome that consists of deciduous trees and occurs at tropical and subtropical latitudes where wet and dry seasons each span about half the year.
Tropical dry forest
a biome characterized by grassland interspread with clusters of acacias and other trees
Savanna
The driest biome on earth, with annual precipitation of less than 25cm. Tundra
Desert
a biome of northern coniferous forest that stretches in a broad band across much of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and scandinavia.
Boreal forest
a biome consisting mostly of densely thicketed evergreen shrubs occurring in limited small patches.
Chaparral
genetic change across generations
Evolution
process by which traits that enhance
survival are passed on to future generations more than
those that do not
• Natural selection
• This alters the genetic makeup of populations over time.
natural selection
each proposed natural selection as a mechanism for evolution
and a way to explain the variety of living things.
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace
• A trait that promotes success in natural selection is called
an
adaptive trait or an adaptation.
• A trait that reduces success is •
maladaptive.
A trait that is adaptive in one location or season may prove _____in another.
maladaptive
one species excludes the other from a resource.
Competitive exclusion
both species coexist at a ratio of population sizes
Species coexistence
specialize in different ways of exploiting a resource.
Resource partitioning
physical characters evolve to become different to better differentiate resources use.
Character displacement
population dynamics of predator-prey systems sometimes show paired cycles; ups and downs in one, drive ups and downs in the other.
Predator-prey cycles
species that have especially great impacts on other community members and on the community’s identity
Keyustone species
a community that remains stable despite disturbance is showing _____.
Resistance
when it changes in response to disturbance but later returns to its original state.
Resilience
a series of regular, predictable, quantifiable changes through which communities go.
Succession
pioneer species colonize a newly exposed area
Primary succession
For a trait to be heritable, genes in an organism’s ___ ____ ____ ___ ___ _____.
DNA
must code for the trait.
• ______ are accidental changes in DNA.
Mutations
•_________that are not lethal provide the genetic variation
on which natural selections act.
Mutations
the sum of an
area’s organisms, considering the diversity of species,
their genes, their populations, and their communities.
Biodiversity, or biological diversity
• A ____ is a particular type of organism; a population
or group of populations whose members share certain
characteristics and can freely breed with one another
and produce fertile offspring.
species
• A ____ is a group of individuals of a particular
species that live in the same area.
population
The process by which new species come
into being
Speciation
1. Single interbreeding
population
2. Population divided by a
barrier; subpopulations
isolated
Allopatric speciation
Many geological and climatic events can serve as barriers
separating populations and causing speciation.
Allopatric speciation
3. The two populations
evolve independently,
diverge in their traits.
4. Populations reunited
when barrier removed,
but are now different
enough that they don’t
interbreed.
Allopatric speciation
• Life’s diversification results from countless speciation
events over vast spans of time.
Phylogenetic trees
• Evolutionary history of divergence is shown with
diagrams called
phylogenetic trees.
• Similar to family genealogies, these show relationships
among organisms.
phylogenetic trees
the disappearance of an entire species
from the face of the Earth.
Extinction
• Average time for a species on Earth is ~
1–10 million
years.
• = the number formed by
speciation minus the number removed by extinction
Species currently on Earth
Earth has seen ___ mass extinction events: 50%+ of
species were wiped out.
five
Ecology deals with these
levels of life:
Organismal
• Population
• Community
• Ecosystem
• Biosphere
are made up of multiple interacting
species that live in the same area.
Communities
• encompass communities and the nonliving
material with which their members interact.
Ecosystems
• Several attributes help predict population dynamics
(changes in population):
Population size
• Population density
• Population distribution
• Sex ratio
• Age structure
• Birth and death rates
Or age distribution=
relative numbers of
individuals of each age
or age class in a
population
age distribution
• Ratio of males to females
in a population
Sex ratio
Populations grow, shrink, or remain stable,
depending on
rates of birth, death, immigration,
and emigration.
Survivorship curves
• Type __ : survival rates are high when organisms are young
and decrease sharply when organisms are old.
I
Survivorship curves
• Type __: survival rates are equivalent regardless of an
organism’s age.
.
II
Survivorship curves
• Type ___: most mortality takes place at young ages, and
survival rates are greater at older ages.
III
Unregulated populations increase by ____ _____
exponential
growth
Population
growth
curves show
change in ______ ____ ____ ____
population
size over time
Limiting factors restrain exponential population
growth, ____ the growth rate down.
slowing
off at a carrying capacity—
the maximum population size of a given species an
environment can sustain.
• Population growth levels
• Initial exponential growth, slowing, and stabilizing at
carrying capacity is shown by a _____ _____ _____.
logistic growth curve
Density-dependent factors (disease, predation, etc.)
account for the ____ ____ ____
logistic growth curve
Species producing lots of young (insects, fish, frogs,
plants) have ___ ___ ___
high biotic potential
• Many offspring
• Fast growing
• No parental care
r-selected species
• Few offspring
• Slow growing
• Parental care
K-selected species
tourism focused on visiting natural areas.
Ecotourism