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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cropland losses
japan 52% korea 46% taiwan 42%
Economic growth
13% in 1992 13% in 1993 11% in 94 10% in 95
Higher demand
Beer- US is the biggest consumer
Seafood faces collapse by when?
2048
Which country is the biggest seafood consumer?
Japan
Seafood collapse is the drop of cath by
1000 yrs over 12 marine regions *29% of catch collapse=90% (goes down)*biodiversity(goes down)
Biological production
the capture of usable energy from the environment to produce organic compounds in which that energy is stored.
3 measurements of biological production
biomass- the total amount of organic matter per unit surface area.
Energy- the total amount of usable energy stored (kilocalorie, Joule)*1kj=1000 j=0.24 kcal
Carbon stored
2 kinds of biological production
primary production- photoautotroph (photosynthesis) carbon dioxide + water + gloucouse + oxygen
Secondary production- heterotroph
Respiration (R)
the use of biomass to release energy that can be used to do work.
An organic compount is combined with oxygen to release energy and produce carbon dioxide
Gross prodution (GP)
production of organic matter before use
Net Production (NP
production of organic matter after use

GP= NP+R
fixation
the capture of energy (EAT)
Energy flow
the capacity to do work
ecosystem energy flow
the movement of energy through an ecosystem from the external environment through a series of organisms and back to the external environment.
Laws of thermodynamics
conservation of energy-energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but only transferred from one form to another
2nd law
- energy spontaneously disperses from being localized to becoming spreadout if it is not hindered from doing so
energy becomes less useful as it converts its form
1.3% of solar energy consumed by plants ~1% of energy consumed by the next trophic level 90% is lost as heat *may achieve 10-% in a managed ecosystem (e.g. farm)
Daily calorie supply per person in 1995? where are areas low and high?
low Africa high US
Undernourishment
the lack of sufficient calore in available food that inhibit a person's ability to work/live.
1996 World Food Summit
set a goal to reduce the undernourished population in half by 2015
Can we provide enough food for the world
the number of livestock, the trend of small grain production, 2002 study on world agriculture 2030. (2002 6 billion 2030 8.3 billion) calorie per person per day 2800 in 2002. undernourished 2002 777million
What should we do
stop wasting the food, organic farming-practices that minimize negative environmental impact, precision farming-practices that increase the yield per acre, eat lower in the food chain, genetically modified crop.
Energy classification
primary energy- contributes to 80+% of global energy consumptio, Alternative energy- energy derived from nontraditional sources.
3 sectors that consume fuel
residential/commercial 38%, industrial 34% transportation 27%
do we have enough fuel(fossil fuel)?
fossil fuel is a nonrenewable resource of energy that results from incomplet biological of dead organic matter
When does fossil fuel peak?
2020 - 2050
fossil fuel
advantages- cost efficient, energy efficient. Disadvantege- non-renewable, emission of GHG enviornmental destruction and degradation, uneven distribution
Hydroelecricity
16% of global electricity
advantage- renewble, emission free, low operating costs
disadvantage- site specific, disrupt ecosystem, relocation of people
Solar
applications- heating, electicity, desalination of sea water
advantage- renewable, emission free, global coverage
disadvantage- expensive, gluctuate supply
Wind
1% advantage-renewable, emission free
disadvantage- site specific, expensive, fluc supply
Biofuel
Alcohol, Ethanol, Methane biodiesel
Advantage-renewable, a partial solution to transportation sector
disadvantage- Air pollution, less energy efficient
Nuclear
fuel produced by controlled use of nucular reaction to release energy
Advantage- abundant, cost efficient, no GHG
disadvantage- nonrenewable, improper handeling may lead to disaster, heat pollunton, hazard waste
Do we have enough fuel?
limited supply , depending on the consumption rate
what should we do the 4 e's?
Enhance energy efficiency- the ration of the actual amount of energy delivered to where itis needed to the amount of energy supplied to meet the need.
Explore renewable resources (solar, wind, fuel cell)
Evaluate energy policy
Energy conservation (commercial/residential, transportation)
energy lost through
energy transformation, distribution e.g. resistance in wire
hard-path
find greater amount of fossil fuel, build larger power plant, provide cheap, high quality energy to solve environmental problems
soft-path
efficient use of energy, diversity of energy production, promote alternative energy that are more environmental friendly and renewable